Verbal Working Memory Study

Improved Essays
Article 1:
The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production
Barbara Arfé, Cristina Rossi, and Silvia Sicoli In the past, many studies have been made for the oral and written capabilities of deaf children. But this journal focuses on the same factors but with their working memory. The children who participated in this study were severely or profoundly deaf and aged from eight to thirteen years old. In specific, they focused on the verbal working memory because this affects their language performances. Previous studies focused on their oral language and written capabilities with exercises such as sentence comprehension or spelling. But here they decided to examine their memory by inspecting the deaf children’s
…show more content…
During a child’s early life, it is dependent on the parent’s linguistic decisions, exposure, and interactions that would determine whether a child could actively use two languages. When it comes to bilingual development an assumption is made that the child will use the language that is exposed to them the most. But this includes factors that are outside of the parent’s reach, such as the language used at school or in the community. This contributes to the child’s attitudes and usage toward these languages which creates an unequal status where one language becomes the majority and the other the minority. Because of this, the status of the minority language can affect its usage. In order to do determine this, the children 's productive vocabulary was measured (MLU) in spoken and signed Finnish. In the procedure, the families of ten children were observed, by Kanto, every six months beginning from when the child was 12 months old and lasted until they were three years old. The children, Lauri, Kati, Onni, Paula, and Matti had both deaf parents. While the other five, Miisa, Miina, Heido, Ari, and Riina had one deaf and one hearing parent. They collected data from twelve to thirty months and did so by collecting information from parent interviews, questionnaires, and monitored interaction sessions with the parent and the child. The study showed that the …show more content…
Their goal was to determine if there was a correlation between the vocabulary scores of deaf children in Sign Language (of the Netherlands) and in written Dutch. In order to do so, they evaluated eighty-seven deaf children from bilingual education programs. Out of the total, fifty of the children were boys and thirty-seven were girls. They came from five schools whose grades ranged from pre kindergarten to early elementary school for deaf children in the Netherlands. All these children had hearing loss measured at more than 80 dB and nonverbal intelligence. They were given sign and reading vocabulary tasks and story comprehension in both languages. By doing so they examined how other factors, such as having hearing parents or a language preference, affected their performance on these tasks. Their reading skills were measured with two tests where they had to read vocabulary and write a story. Vocabulary was assessed by having the child look at a written word on a screen and match it with the correct picture. For story comprehension, they had to read six stories which gradually increased in complexity. Afterwards, they were asked four questions about the story and had the option to respond in however way they prefered. Most of the children chose to respond in sign language. In the data collected they found that these children had stronger language skills in

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Sign Language Case Study

    • 1578 Words
    • 7 Pages

    All three families chose to use sign language with their hearing children, before making the decision the families had no knowledge with the Deaf community, and the children language was developing normally. Each taping session lasted for about an hour and in each family, the children were about fifteen months to twenty-one months old. Overall, the infants from the three families were taught signing for specific purposes such as for politeness and when the infants are in the kitchen they were taught to sign when wanting something or how to ask for an item. Pizer realized when evaluating these families that they learned how beneficial it can be, yet how it can also be discarded when the infants eventually start speaking. Also, it reduces a barrier between the deaf and hearing communities (Pizer,…

    • 1578 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    SES Child Development

    • 2122 Words
    • 9 Pages

    Article I Background It is known that socioeconomic status (SES) impacts both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but before this study, it was never tested how early the signs of impact could be detected. The earliest study of impact tested sixteen to thirty-six-month-old infants in their language and cognitive skills and predicted their language improvement for the next three years (Gou, Choudhury, & Benasich, 2011). Another study observed the effects of low SES by looking at five-year-olds and the lower hemispheric specialization of their frontal gyrus (Raizada, Richards, Meltzoff, & Kuhl, 2008). The main factors of SES include the family income, education, occupation, and social class. This study notes that…

    • 2122 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Auditory Memory

    • 1920 Words
    • 8 Pages

    They recorded an average of six memories over a three month period. Memories were divided into five different categories: (1) recognition or recall of a specific event that occurred, (2) recall of a specific location of an object, (3) a cue which triggered the child’s memory, (4) novel memories that the child specifically did, or (5) recurrent memories. These recordings showed us that forty percent of all the memories recalled were from the first category, an aspect from an event, with over seventy percent of these children being older than twenty-four months. Young children, however, seem to remember things that have to do with objects and their surroundings. Age does seem to be a factor here.…

    • 1920 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of decision-making factors of caregivers of children with hearing loss regarding the use of speech, the use of sign, spoken language multilingualism, and spoken language choice. Often, caregivers are making these important decisions while often not knowing the effects it will have on them and their child. According to the article, the previous studies “(a) allowed for a comprehensive set of potential factors to be examined, (b) allowed for the importance of factors to be compared, or (c) considered a large, heterogeneous sample of children with hearing loss. In addition to these limitations, caregiver decision making regarding spoken language choice for children from multilingual families…

    • 709 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    The study followed six students who took part in inclusive early childhood programs. Each of these students was diagnosed with autism according to the DSM III (Strain & Hoyson 2000). Additionally, each of these students met other behavioral criteria to ensure the presence of significant needs in the areas of communicative, adaptive, and social functioning. The participants’ entry scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale(CARS) placed them in the moderate to severe range of autism (Strain & Hoyson 2000). Initial scores on the Learning Accomplishment Profile, which provides a systematic method for observing children in assessing individual skill development in gross motor, fine motor, cognitive, and language development, indicated that their rate of development was equivalent to approximately two-thirds of their chronological age (Strain & Hoyson 2000).…

    • 2229 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Micheal Merzenich Essay

    • 1114 Words
    • 4 Pages

    He is the first one to design the cochlear implant that allow deaf children to hear. He designed the computer program called “Fast For Words” that last from thirty to sixty hours to help people with cognitive difficulties and also helped lots of autistic children. Merzenich’s work has falsified the belief that brain having limits on memory, processing…

    • 1114 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Montessori Method

    • 1495 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The study was compiled of 50 children. 25 served as a control group, while 25 were selected to be the experimental group. All the children were between the ages of 5 and 6. The study was designed with the use of assessments that would ultimately measure the overall retention effect in each group, based on the Montessori education they received. The first test was called the “metropolitan readiness test”.…

    • 1495 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    This article discussed the findings of a study conducted on the effectiveness of implementing a strategy instruction model with students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as well as deficits in writing. The goal of this test was to increase the students’ writing ability in both number of words produced as well as independently write a narrative incorporating all seven essential story parts. The test was administered by an advanced doctoral student, who was trained in the area of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development method. The participants were all students in a rural elementary school in a mid-western state where the school’s population was 96% Caucasian, 1% African American, 2% Hispanic and 1% Asian. Only 8% of the school’s…

    • 1040 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Neuron Imaging Techniques

    • 917 Words
    • 4 Pages

    His parents were deaf and he used sign languages at home from a very young age. In the research, the researchers compared MA to 12 other participants (control) and they were fluent in sign language. The PET scan was used while the participants produced narrative speech or signs. The results shows that MA’s right hemisphere was more active than the control’s during both speech and sign production. This showed that Language was developed in the right hemisphere instead of the left because of his adaptation of his brain damage.…

    • 917 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    PHONICS FOR CHILDREN Definition: Phonics is the systemic teaching of the sounds conveyed by letters and groups of letters, and includes teaching children to combine and blend these to read or write words. It is important because • The majority of the information conveyed by letters concern sounds • Letters tell us more information than any other source • We can’t read fluently until we read accurately • Once we have learned we can store in our memory and retrieve it more quickly • Almost all weak readers have difficulty in blending sounds from letters to make words. Different approaches to Phonetic teaching Synthetic phonics: • The children are systematically taught the phonemes associated with particular letters. • Children begin from hearing…

    • 869 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays