Current Epidemiology of Diabetes in the Uk Essay

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Diabetes- current epidemiology and measuring variables at a local level

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is not classed as single disorder as it represents a series of conditions associated with high blood sugar which are cased in turn by defects in insulin secretion or the effectiveness of insulin or both. It is usually diagnosed by evidence of hyperglycaemia in a fasting state (>7.1 mmol/l plasma glucose) or threw an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)( >11.1mmol/l plasma glucose). It can be diagnosed in adults who are not pregnant by a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ( 6.5% or > 48 mmol/mol) (NICE 2011).

There are a few types of Diabetes including the main two Type 1, Type 2 which we will concentrate on. Others
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One study by Gonzalez et al (1999) looked at the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in the UK between 1996 and 2005. They showed the prevalence of increased from 2.8% in 1996 to 4.3% in 2005. The incidence of type 2 diabetes increased from 2.60 (2.47–2.74 confidence intervals)/1000 person-years in 1996 to 4.31 (4.21–4.42 confidence intervals)/1000 person years in 2005. As the confidence intervals are quite narrow in these cases this means it is a large sample and so more likely to be more representative.

What could be the reason for this raise? As mentioned before it may be due to the raise in obesity due to the society we live in, more sedentary lifestyles, availability of cheap fast food. It may be due to better diagnosis. The exact causes of diabetes mellitus are not completely understood. It is thought that it is multi-factorial and that genetic and environmental factors play a role.
The only aspect of the prevalence data that you can criticise as such is that the fact is that it takes time to collect all these statistics and you will find the data will not be up to date. I.e. allot of the figures will be a couple of years prior to the report, also these figures are estimates.

The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes is an issue due to the fact that it may lead to numerous complications. Having diabetes puts you at risks of developing cardiovascular disease, kidney disease,

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