Criminology : Social Scientific Academic Study Of Crime And Criminals

1785 Words Nov 24th, 2014 null Page
Criminology is the social-scientific academic study of crime and criminals. It focuses immensely on how and why crime happens and how to prevent it. Many criminologists queried and argued about when criminology first became its own independent discipline. Hayward & Morrison (2009), cited in Hale et al (2009), claimed that theoretical criminology has been an academic discipline for over two centuries. On the contrary, Garland (2002), cited in Newburn (2007) stated that the “new science of criminology’ emerged about 130 years ago and only became an independent discipline about 60-70 years ago”.
The birth of criminology is said to have emerged in the 18th century. Classical Criminology or Classicism emphasised on that individuals have the free will to commit crimes and that they should be responsible for their actions if caught. This academic discipline appeared advent of society modernising with the factors of urbanism, capitalism and industrialisation. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), according to Justice Studies, was the principle advocate of the classical school of criminological theory. He was accountable for the abolition of torture as a method of getting a criminal to confess their felonies. Beccaria (1764) viewed crime as more of a burden to society the person who experienced it. All in all, society should be the one to determine the punishment. He quote that criminal law should ‘bind and guide society by laying out clear, rational rules’. To demonstrate, the community…

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