Single-Linear Epidemiology: A Case Study

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All heartbeats consist of a mechanical component and an electrical component. The heartbeat is created by cardiac depolarization caused by electrical currents that induce muscle contraction. The electrical component of the heartbeat begins in the Sinoatrial (SA) Node and its function is to send electrical impulses that stimulate your heart to beat, and these impulses induce the atria to contract. As the atria contract, the impulse moves on to the Atrioventricular (AV) node which leads the ventricles to contract (A). A pacemaker becomes necessary when the heart suffers from arrhythmia, a condition of irregular heartbeats, and is unable to contract at a rate deemed sufficient to meet the metabolic needs of the patient. Bradycardia is a specific type of arrhythmia where one’s heart rate is slower than normal, and it serves to be the leading cause for single-chamber pacemakers resulting in the implantation of more than 600,000 devices annually (B). Innovations to the components and …show more content…
As of April 2016, Engineers at Medtronic received FDA approval for the new Micra Transcatheter Pacing System which is a single-chamber pacemaker that is 93% smaller than modern-day pacemakers (B). The Micra is placed within the right ventricle of the heart, eliminating the need for an external pocket and lead (C). The Micra is a fully enclosed, airtight capsule with a volume of 0.8 cubic centimeters, a length of 25.9 millimeters, a diameter of 6.7 millimeters, and a weight of 2.0 grams (D). It is assumed to have a longevity of 9.6 years based on a 1.5 Volt output, five-hundred-ohm resistance, sixty beats per minute, and a 0.24 millisecond pulse width (C). The function of the Micra remains the same as other single-chamber pacemakers; sensing the cardiac depolarization of myocardial cells, releasing stimulation if necessary, and recording diagnostic information about the

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