Compare And Contrast Tumour Suppressor Genes And Proto-Oncogenes

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Compare and contrast tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. Discuss an example of how recent advances in our understanding of these genes have led to the development of a novel therapy that is being used in the treatment of human cancer. …show more content…
Some of these viruses were notable due to the simplicity of their RNA genome. These viruses only had three distinct transcription units, involved in the replication of the virus (coat proteins and reverse transcriptase etc.), and an extra gene. This was an oncogene. When oncogenes are properly functioning they are termed proto-oncogenes (Todd R, 1999). Their normal function is to control cell proliferation. These function in growth signalling pathways, and conversely to tumour suppressing cells are activated through a gain in function rather than a loss of it. This occurs in two ways, by producing more of a product, or producing a subtly different product, as a result of a mutation similar to tumour suppressor genes (Croce, 2008). Oncogenes play a particularly strong role in the development of breast cancers. Often the normal ERBB2 and other related genes are amplified in late stage neuroblastomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. ERBB2 encodes HER2 which is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor, and a factor in 30% of all breast …show more content…
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