Cognitive Learning Theory Essay

1475 Words Feb 29th, 2012 6 Pages
Cognitive Learning Theory

Psychology of Learning PSY 331

October 12, 2009

Abstract Cognitive learning theories emerged in the mid-1900s and were a dramatic departure from the behaviorist learning theories so popular at the time. The advent of the computer also contributed to the emergence of cognitive theories of learning because computers provided the first means to "metaphorically conceptualize human cognition" (Bates, 1999). Cognitive learning theories are based on the assumption that the student is an active learner, that the student actively processes information. These theories emphasize internal processing of information and material to which a student is exposed. Processing include receiving information, processing it
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Gagne saw "learning and instruction as a series of phases, using the cognitive steps of coding, storing, retrieving and transferring information" (Cooper, 2005). Some of the key concepts of the cognitive theory of learning are: * · The learner is active in processing information (University of Natal, 2005). * · Schema. This is an internal knowledge structure. It means the person compares new information to existing cognitive structures, which are called schema. The schema is then changed in some way to accept and accommodate the new information (Mergel, 1998). * · Three-Stage Information Processing Model. Information enters the sensory register, which means the individual receives information from their senses. This only lasts a few seconds before it is replaced. The information may be sent to the short-term memory where it remains for about 20 seconds. It might stay longer if the person rehearses that bit of information. The greatest amount that can be retained in short-term memory is about 7 items. If information is categorized or put into chunks, such as a telephone number, it can be

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