Classification Tests for Hydroxyl and Carbonyl Containing Compound

2054 Words Jan 10th, 2014 9 Pages
Organic Chemistry Laboratory

CLASSIFICATION TESTS FOR HYDROXYL AND CARBONYL CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

ABSTRACT Hydroxyl- and Carbonyl- containing samples were tasked to be distinguished and classified respectively; the three types of alcohols were to be differentiated along with aldehydes and ketones. Hydroxyl groups are functional groups containing OH- atoms acting as substituents in an organic compound, carbonyl- groups refer to a divalent group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom. Hydroxyl groups are characteristic functional groups of alcohols and phenols, while carbonyl groups are characteristic functional groups of aldehydes and ketones. The samples include ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol,
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Primary alcohols are those in which the hydroxyl group is attached to a primary carbon (carbon attached to only one carbon). Secondary alcohols compounds in which the hydroxyl group is attached to a secondary carbon (carbon attached to two carbons), and Tertiary alcohols are compounds in which the hydroxyl groups is attached to a tertiary carbon (carbon attached to three carbons). A carbonyl group is a family of functional groups composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O. The group is a constituent of carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides, acylhalides, amides, and quinines, and it is the characteristic functional group of aldehydes and ketones.

Aldehydes are organic compounds containing a terminal carbonyl group. This functional group consists of a carbon bonded to a hydrogen atom with a single covalent bond with an oxygen atom with a double bond. Thus the chemical formula for a carbonyl functional group is -CH=O, and the general formula for an aldehyde is R-CH=O.

Ketones features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. They differ from aldehydes in a way that carbonyl is placed between two carbons rather than at the terminal end of a carbon structure. They are also distinct from other functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amines which have a carbonyl group bonded to a hetero atom.

The tests used in the experiment were Solubility of

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