Chpt. 16 the Agony of Reconstruction Essay examples

663 Words Jan 11th, 2013 3 Pages
The Agony of Reconstruction
Ch. 16 (499-510)

I. Issue—Most important post-war issue was the future of the freedmen A. Blacks sought the rights to vote and hold political office B. Results in intense and unparallel political conflicts at the national level II. Political crisis A. Minimal Reconstruction and supporters B. Radical Reconstruction and supporters C. Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction (Dec. 1863) 1. Proclamation of amnesty a. Oath of allegiance b. Acknowledge emancipation c. Ten percent plan 1. State govts. could be formed when 10% of those who voted in 1860 (note: that
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Unlike Lincoln, Johnson added people whose taxable property greater than $20,000 to the list of those needing presidential pardons C. Johnson’s recommendations to the conventions 1. Declare secession illegal 2. Refuse to pay Confederate debts 3. Ratify 13th Amendment (Jan 1865) that abolished slavery

D. Conventions results 1. Reluctantly approved Johnson’s recommendations, some with qualifications 2. Limited suffrage to whites 3. “Black Codes”—laws designed to keep blacks a semi-free, cheap labor and place limits on socioeconomic opportunities for blacks 4. Ex-Confederate leaders were elected to office because of Johnson’s generous pardon and amnesty policy. IV. Split between Johnson and Congress A. Issues 1. House and Senate refuse to seat southern delegation 2. Congress wants further conditions for readmission 3. Johnson wants quick Reconstruction and return to normalcy a. Vetoes the extension of the Freedmen’s Bureau b. Vetoes the Civil Rights Act B. Results 1. Shocked moderate Republicans ally themselves with Radicals 2. Congress overrides veto of the Civil

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