Case Study Of Theobroma Cacao

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
The cocoa plant, Theobroma cacao was introduced into Malaysia in 1950 for commercial planting and follow by grindings industry in 1973. Both activity of cocoa was influence position and perspective of Malaysia and it will become producing and processing country that provides cocoa. Other than oil palm and rubber industry, the one of the commodity crop in Malaysia is cocoa industry (Azhar I and Lee. M. T, 2004). Unfortunately, the area of cocoa plantation on 1989 is 414 236 ha and the cocoa bean production on 1990 that produce 247 000 tonnes cocoa bean and it decline to 45 365 ha and 36 236 tonnes in 2003, it is because the area has been dominate by oil palm plantation (1). The amount of cocoa plantation are still decline
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The cultivar cocoa, Theobroma cacao L is the family of Sterculiaceae. Cocoa is a dicots, it have two cotyledons, taproot and five floral parts. During seed germination, the initial grow is tap root and followed by hypocotyls up above ground level. It take three month to develop mature tree root. In duration, the stem will develop based on growth the cotyledon. The plumule will appear, its depend on emerge of cotyledon and the first four leaves will follow growth. The lateral branch of cocoa tree knows as jorquette. And the fan branches are the branches that formed on jorquette. Theobroma cacao is one of the major crops in Malaysia after oil palm, rubber and paddy. The productions of cocoa are diversity such as chocolates, beverages and non-food products. In fact, it will influence the economic in …show more content…
According Cocoa Planting Manual book (11) the characteristic of cocoa variety based on tree, cocoa pod and seed bean cocoa. The Criollo group has green cocoa pod during immature and become dark red or yellow at mature stage. The pod surface more rough compare to Forestero and the pod husk is thin and deep furrowed. The shape of cocoa is cundeamor and angoleta. Other than that, the size of seed bean cocoa in big size, oval shaped and more high bean quality. The color of cotyledon is white to light purple. In addition, the size tree and canopy of criollo is small size and the clone is susceptibility to disease. While, the Forastero group has green cocoa pod during immature and become red at mature stage. The pod surface is smooth and the pod husk is thick but its depend on sclerotic layer. The cocoa shape is amelonado and calabacillo. Furthermore, the seed bean cocoa is small size, flat shaped and inferior bean quality. The color of cotyledon is deep purple. The tree and canopy of Forastero more vigorous than criollo and the clone is more tolerant to disease. One more variety is trinitario and it is a cross between Criollo and Forastero. The characteristic of the variety is more quality than other two varieties. The tree and canopy of trinitario is vigorous and more tolerant to

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