Brutalism Architecture In The 20th Century

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After the second World War, local communities in the United Kingdom were forced to seek affordable construction and design method. As a result, Brutalism Architecture became a favourable method amongst architects during the mid 20th Century. However, as Brutalism architecture grew, the importance of connection between building and its surrounding context were also taken into consideration between few architects. They believed buildings should serve the need of its inhabitant and act as a medium between nature and society. Allison and Peter Smithsons were one of the key characters that took this new ideology and implemented them into their own design sets.
Allison (22 June 1928 – 16 August 1993) and Peter Smithson (18
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These projects illustrate Allison and Peter Smithson’s way of composing spatial arrangement, materiality, architectural composition, approach to local condition, favoured habitability, and environment control. Moreover, Allison and Peter Smithson incorporated an awareness of climate and energy resources into their architectural approach by implementing the understanding of passive conditioning. The Smithsons stated that “The stress is on the needs for immediacy of response and reaction to the changeable weather of England; the almost constant need for full or partial weather protection […] Northern Europe involves us inevitably in sun acceptance, amelioration of climate and, above all, of exclusion of rain.” (Smithson and Smithson, 2001)
Case study – Upper Lawn Pavilion
The Upper Lawn Pavilion, located in Wiltshire, Great Britain was built in 1962. It was a small “Climate home” powered by Solar energy. The Smithson used it as a place enjoy passing of the seasons and as a “laboratory” for testing out their passive conditioning strategies, different habitation models and new building materials and

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