Biopsychosocial Model Of Addiction Essay

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Addiction is a state that results when someone consumes a substance or involves themselves in an activity such as gambling in a way that it interferes with their normal life (Howatt 2005). There are various addictions such as drug addiction, gambling, food, internet, sex among others. Initially addiction was assumed to be a disease. However, recent research has shown that it is not a disease as it does not hold all the characteristics of a disease. In 1977. George L. Engel, a psychiatrist at the University of Rochester came up with the Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction (Fisher 2009).
From the biopsychosocial model, we understand that addiction is a “complex disease” (Howatt 2005). It may be influenced by either biological, social or psychological
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It is believed that the narcotic causes readjustment of the metabolism. The narcotic has to be consumed regularly otherwise may lead to withdrawal.
Studies have shown that alcoholism runs in families. In 1982, Milofsky and Valliant proposed that alcoholism can be passed from parent to child (Fisher 2009). Adopted children whose biological parents are alcoholics have a higher tendency to become alcoholics themselves. In an analysis, Valliant found out that people with alcoholic relatives are four times likely to be alcoholics compared to those without alcoholic relatives. However his research did not support his hypothesis.
Alexander and Hadaway stated that addiction is biological and refer to it as a disease (Miller 2013). Drugs such as opium are used for medicinal purposes. Continuous use of drugs interferes with certain organs. For example, alcohol when consumed regularly in large amount interferes with the liver. Putting this into consideration, we agree that addiction is a disease. Continuous use of opium may lead to addiction. However, addiction cannot be treated and it cannot be transmitted from one person to another. It is someone’s choice as to whether to continue the use of drugs or not. Withdrawing from an addiction does not require medical attention. It requires the will of the addict and some therapeutic
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Psychology is the study of human behavior and what influences the behavior (Miller 2010). Mental disorders, mood swings, cognitive issues are considered to be the main psychological causes of addiction. Most of the addicts are usually driven to addiction by either stress or pressure from other people. The use of drugs usually cause hallucinations and makes one to forget the problems they are facing. According to Freud, the psychological theory of addiction is made up the id, superego and ego (Miller 2010). The id is more childish, has lots of instincts and does things by force. The superego is the main component of someone’s personality. The ego intervenes between the superego and

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