Kant's Theories Of Morality

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Kant would reject the charge, “bottom line, humans are nothing more than insignificant creatures with an animal nature.” This is because Kant believes that human beings are rational and act in accordance with moral principles. The categorical imperative, which is the moral law dictated by reason, is binding on all rational beings. He argues that rational beings cannot be treated as means to an end because they are ends in themselves. This requires respecting their reasoned motives. This is derived from his claim that reason motivates morality and demands respect for reason as a motive for all human beings. Because rational beings cannot accept to be used as a means to an end, they must always be treated as an end.
According to Kant, humans
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The first is self-love and the second is the love of humanity. Kant’s argument is that friendship evolves from the motive of the love of humanity. He argues that true friendship generates an exchange of welfare. He considers friendship as a union of two people through mutual respect and love. Friendship is an idea that is unattainable in practice, but striving for friendship is a moral duty. Human beings are compelled by practical reason to pursue friendship. Friendship is an idea that represents reciprocal love.
Kant recognizes four notions of friendship, which are taste, need, sentiment, and ideal friendship. He notes that three of these notions of friendship are realizable but ideal friendship is not realizable because the quality of friendship an only be approximated. Friendship based on need arises where individuals entrust each other with reciprocal concerns about their needs. It is less possible because friendship cannot be aimed at mutual advantage. Friendship based on taste consists of taking pleasure in the mutual association of two individuals. It is expressed outwardly and individuals are bound to each other not by similarity but by difference. Friendship based on sentiment is characterised by unselfishness. The participants in this notion of friendship share the same moral
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An imperative is a command. He distinguishes between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative. While hypothetical imperatives commands what to do in order to achieve some goal, categorical imperatives are unconditional commands. The categorical imperative dictates what to do irrespective of an individual’s desired goal. The categorical imperative has three or requirements. The first is the requirement of universality, which requires that everyone should act the same. The second is the human dignity requirement, which mandates an individual to treat others as an end and not just as a means to an end. The third is the reciprocity requirement, which stipulates that an action must be considered to be fair from all

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