Advantages And Disadvantages Of Gene Silencing

Improved Essays
Different gene silencing methods are being used in biomedical research for the development of potential disease therapeutics. Most of these methods are similar in that they involve the disabling of mRNA by preventing it from being translated into a protein. They differ in the type of molecule used to disrupt mRNA. Due to these differences, each silencing method has specific advantages and disadvantages. Two of the most currently understood methods of gene silencing are RNA interference (RNAi) and antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). In RNAi, the molecules that identify the target mRNA are called small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These siRNAs are short, synthetically made double-stranded RNA molecules (Koenig et al. 2013). The combining of …show more content…
dsRNA is endogenously found as the genetic material of some viruses. It also plays an important role in gene function and expression in eukaryotes. Previous research suggests that gene silencing does not occur in eukaryotes naturally; so far it can only be applied in laboratory settings. dsRNA is known to trigger gene silencing when injected into the cells of organisms. This process has been coined as RNA interference in animals, post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, and quelling in fungi. Gene silencing involves exogenous double stranded RNA molecules that prevent gene expression by triggering a mechanism that leads to the degradation and silencing of endogenous mRNA molecules (Meister and Tuschl …show more content…
Interferons are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. The researchers suggested that using dsRNAs of longer than 30 base pairs would trigger these interferon responses. They found that cleaved dsRNAs of less than 30 base pairs would not activate these antiviral immune responses because they went undetected. The study confirmed that specific gene silencing in mammalian cells could be accomplished by cleaving the long dsRNAs into strands of 19 to 21 base pairs (Chang et al.

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Retro transposons first transcribe themselves in RNA and then RNA is copied to DNA again by reverse transcriptase which is generally encoded by mobile elements. Copied DNA is inserted into target site. The main class of retro transposons are virus like and poly A retro transposons. On the other hand, the distinctive property of Class II mechanisms which generally use cut and paste mechanism does not involve RNA intermediated in their transposition. The enzyme called transposase cut the target sequence and generates sticky ends.…

    • 1692 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    RNA was used as the template for reverse transcriptase, which would give rise to the cDNA that would later be used as the template for PCR. However, some tubes like the –RT and –RNA, which served to be our negative controls, do not contain RT or RNA, respectively. Random Primers attach to the RNA molecules, giving an indication of where the RT should bind. 5x Reaction buffer was used to maintain the pH of solution and maximizing the efficiency of the product production; while MgCl2 aids in the activity of the enzyme. In order for the reverse transcriptase to attach the appropriate base pairs for the cDNA, we had to add dNTPs.…

    • 1208 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Parvovirus Research Paper

    • 1461 Words
    • 6 Pages

    An important sequence of FPV is a hairpin structure found at the 3’ end of viral DNA. This sequence serves as a primer template for the host cell’s DNA polymerase (4,20). As previously discussed, FPV’s genome contains sequences resembling the TATA box and polyadenylation sites that initiate and terminate transcription by host polymerase. Host cells may also contain an hnRNP A/B protein that reduces the affinity of DNA polymerase to bind to viral DNA, thus reducing its ability to replicate (22). However, not all host cells contain this protein at high enough concentrations to block FPV…

    • 1461 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The DNA inserted into the embryonic stem cells was composed of two indicator genes: neor, which is resistant to G418, and tkHSV, which is degraded and destroyed by ganciclovir. The researcher wants to keep the genes that are resistant to G418 (neor) because this means that homologous or nonhomologous recombination has occurred. Thus, the cells that did not undergo a form of recombination are destroyed; however, the researcher wishes to only maintain cells with genes…

    • 1028 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However genes cannot be injected into cell therefore a vector must be used, this is done via ex vivo and In vivo gene therapy. Ex vivo is the infusing of the therapeutic gene into human which has been inserted into viral DNA, then target cells are removed and cultured with the therapeutic gene, now these cells are genetically altered happens outside the body and reintroduced into the body to produce desired proteins. In vivo is where the therapeutic gene is inserted into viral DNA/plasmid DNA, this is genetically and altered and inserted directly into the DNA of cell of the body through tissue injections. Although gene editing and human gene therapy has many benefits it has it ethical issues. One of the main issues is that the consequences of genome editing are unknown in human embryos until the baby is born and the effects on the future generation are unpredictable.…

    • 746 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    They are primarily comprised of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat called a capsid that serves to provide protection for the genetic material. Unlike non-viral vectors, viral vectors are more likely to trigger a host immune response upon transfection of the DNA. Although there has been some success with non-viral vectors in gene therapy, these successes have been limited. Viruses have evolved to become very efficient at delivering nucleic acid to several cells types (5). The major hurdle to be overcome when considering the usage of a virus as a vector, is eliminating its pathogenicity.…

    • 1586 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Essay On Recombinant Dna

    • 1608 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Advances in biology have led to many life altering medications, treatments, and solutions to molecular issues. One such region of biology that has altered scientists’ stances on creating a perfect product is the research being done on recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is any single molecule containing DNA sequences from two or more organisms. The process of creating recombinant DNA relies on the use of restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis, and DNA ligase. The first step in creating this new DNA strand is to cut the gene sequences you want from the original DNA molecule.…

    • 1608 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    This is the origin of the CRISRP acronym. These CRISPR sequences are specific patterns of DNA sequences that are capable of being edited out of genes. Using the CRISPR system, bacteria are able to destroy the genome of invading viruses and thus prevent the virus from being able to replicate and survive in its host.…

    • 1490 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Cas9 Essay

    • 1113 Words
    • 5 Pages

    When the virus attacks the bacteria again, its DNA is detected through an RNA base pairing method. It then bonds together with the Cas9 enzyme, to cut the DNA, producing a double-stranded break and inactivating the virus. This system can be used to cut other DNA sequences at a…

    • 1113 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    This discontinuous synthesis of DNA causes short segments of DNA called Okazaki fragments to be formed. As DNA polymerase continues to synthesis DNA, Topoisomerase must bind to the DNA strand in front of DNA polymerase and break the hydrogen bonds of the nucleotides to relieve the strain and prevent supercoiling of DNA. An analogy of this would be twirling a rubber band until it…

    • 1415 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays

Related Topics