28 April 2010
Exam 3 essay
I. Stimulus control is the process where a stimulus increases the probability of a behavior by reinforcing the desired behavior in the presence of the stimulus. Throughout chapters eight and nine in “Learning and Behavior”, examples of Stimulus Control, and how one learns to Generalize and Discriminate in the real world are provided. Topics such as verbal behavior, self, animal training, and TV and violence are discussed.
“The traditional view of language is that words are vehicles for moving ideas from one head to another”. However, the alternate view given is expressed in a book written by Skinner called “Verbal Behavior”. Skinner states that in order to understand the nature
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Since playing with a ball and hitting oneself is difficult, if not impossible to do, the child continues to play with the ball and his self-injurious behavior falls over 90% (239-240). The use of self-control is also discussed. Self-control techniques are learned behaviors that are established and maintained by their consequences. Self-control refers to the tendency to do things now that effect our later behavior. One may try to quit smoking to help improve their health, and may give their pack of cigarettes to their roommate and tell him or her to only give them three cigarettes a day. Or, they may distance themselves from their friends who smoke, in hopes of reducing the temptation to smoke. Techniques such as physical restraint, distancing, monitoring behavior, and informing others, are some of the learned methods that teach people to exert self-control (242-244). Observational learning has occurred in many animals. An experiment demonstrates that animals, in this case monkey’s, benefit from the consequences of a model’s behavior. Carl Warden runs the experiment, and sets up two different cages. One holds a trained, model monkey, the other, an observer monkey. The results of the experiment show that the observer monkey learns to open a door and eat a raisin, simply by observing the model monkey (277). Although Observational learning brings forth many