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218 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Onychophora
-represents an evolutionary link between annelids and arthopods
-has a stiff cuticle
-lacks segmented appendages
there are more ___ than any other kind of animal
arthopods
arthopods similarities with annelids
-metameric but have often lost and fused segments (segmentation is less regular)
-their serially homologous appendages show extensive modification
-have trochophore larva
arthopods have a ___ vascular system
open
the key innovation to the arthopods evolutionary success
the jointed exoskeleton
the exoskeleton of arthopods
-a jointed, chitinous, exoskeleton of hard plates, separated by flexible membranes
-provides protection, mechanical rigidity, and joints that permit complex movements driven by muscles
limitations imposed by exoskeletons
restrict growth and gas exchange
ecdysis
the evolution of the exoskeleton molting
adaptations used by arthopods to compensate for the disadvantages of exoskeletons
-ecdysis
-complex gas exchange organs (gills, book lungs, and tracheal systems)
the sexuality of arthopods
diocious (separate sexes)
metamorphosis
development that occurs in stages with dramatic changes in body form
the major sub-phylums of phylum anthropoda
sub-phylum trilobita
sub-phylum chelicerata
sub-phylum crustacea
sub-phylum uniramia
the major classes of sub-phylum chelicerata
class pycnogonida (sea spiders)
class arachnida (spiders, scorpians, mites, ticks)
class merostomata (water scorpians, horseshoe crabs
major classes of sub-phylum crustacea
class maxillopoda (coepods, ostracods, barnacles)
class malacostraca (CRABS: isopods, amphipods, decapods)
major classes of sub-phylum uniramia
class diplopoda (millipedes)
class chilopoda (centipedes)
class insecta (insects)
defining characteristics of sub-phylum Chelicerata
-chelicerae (small pincer-like feeding appendages often modified to suck body fluids out of captured prey)
-body divided into cephalothorax and abdomen
-have no antennae
defining characteristics of sub-phylum crustacea
-mandibles (used to process food)
-a series of biramous appendages
-two pairs of antennae
the basal segment of sub-phylum crustacea
-called protopodite
-splits into a lateral exopodite and a medial endopodite
statocyst
a gravity receptor (equillibrium)
serially homologous appendages
appendages that occur in sequence and develop at the same time
biramous appendages
having two branches
why might serial homolgy with modification be important in the evolution of arthopods?
its a simple evolutionary path to design serial homology appendages
what is the function of the gastric mill
mastication structure, breaks down food
what class do sea spiders belong to?
pycnogonida
which body segment bears the legs on a spider?
cephalothorax
what are the defining characteristics of sub-phylum uniramia?
-having a single pair of antennae
-mandibles
-uniramous appendages
what are the classes of sub-phylum uniramia?
class diplopoda (milipedes)
class chilopoda (centipedes)
class insecta (insects)
what are part of class lepidoptera
moths and butterflies
what are part of class diptera
two winged flies, mosquitoes
what are part of class coleoptera
beetles
what are part of class orthoptera
grasshoppers, crickets, mantids, roaches
what are part of class hymenoptera
wasps, ants, bee's
what are part of class hemiptera
bedbugs, water bugs
what are part of class homoptera
cicadas, leaf hoppers, aphids
what are part of class odonata
damselfies, dragonflies
what are part of class ephemeroptera
mayflies
what are part of class blattodea
cockroaches
what are part of class neuroptera
lace wings, dobsonflies, ant lions
what is a uniramous appendage?
an appendage that exists as a single branch
what is the function of the sensory cerci on a grasshopper?
attachment for mating and to feel and be able to connect with mates
metamorphosis
a sharp change in form during post-embryonic development
the "bug" (hemiptera) type of metamorphosis
incomplete
the most dramatic metamorphosis
complete
what is the adaptive significance of metamorphosis in insects?
-the appearance of wings (BIGGEST REASON)
-reduces competition between stages
elytra
hard forewings with extra chiten (tough) protective covers of class coleoptera
halteres
2nd pair of wings (knobbed structures), gyroscopic stabilizers (like tail roters on helicopters) (diptera)
defining characteristics of phylum echinodermata
-and endoskeleton of calcareous plates (ossicles) lying in the mesoderm and covered by the epidermal layer
-a water-vascular system that arises from the coelom
-secondary pentaradial symmetry
-bipinnaria larvae
what does phylum hemichordata share with the chordates
-deuterostomous development
-pharyngeal gills
defining characteristics of phylum chordata
-pharyngeal gill slits
-a notochord
-a single, hollow, dorsal, tubular nerve cord
-a post-anal tail
-segmentally arranged bands of muscle called myotomes
the subphylums of phylum chordata
-sub-phylum Urochordata (tunicates or sea squirts)
-sub-phylum cephalochordata (lancelets)
-sub-phylum vertebrata (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)
superclasses of sub-phylum vertebrata
-superclass myxinomorphi (jawless fishes-hagfish)
-superclass petromyzontomorphi (jawless fishes-lampreys)
-superclass gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)
classes of superclass gnathostomata (jawed vetebrates)
-class chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes-sharks)
-class actinopterygii (bony fishes)
-class amphibia
-class reptilia
-class aves
-class mammalia
defining characteristics of sub-phlyum cephalochordata
-no paired appendages
-use cilia to feed
-notochord extends all the way to the head
do lamprey or hagfish have true teeth?
no. its has oral suckers lined with abrasive denticles to cut into its host.
where did the jaws of gnathostomata evolve from?
the cartilagionus gill arches of the jawless fish
what type of skeleton is found in echinoderms?
endoskeleton
what kind of symmetry is found in echinoderms?
secondary pentaradial symmetry
how do adults ascidians (turicates) feed?
water is brought in by the incurrent siphon, food trapped in mucous net, carried by cilia to stomach and intestine
how do the cephalochordates get their names?
the notochord extends all the way to the head
what characterisitcs distinguish the cephalochordates from the urochordates?
-diagnostic chordate characteristics persist in adults
-notocord extends all the way to the head
how does amphioxus (an immature lancelet) feed?
cilia
how are organisms in the class chondrichthyes distiguished from those in class actinopterygii?
-bony skeletons
-gills covered with operculum
all terrestrial (non-fish) vetebrates
tetrapods
tetrapods that must lay eggs in or near water to prevent the eggs from desiccating and have an aquatic larval stage
anamniotes
the major orders of class amphibia
order gymnophiona (legless amphibians)
order caudata (salamanders, newts)
order anura (frogs and toads)
major orders of class reptilia
order testudines (turtles)
order crocodilia (crocodiles)
order squamata (lizards and snakes)
herpetologists use __, __, and __ features to understand the ecology and behavior of reptiles
skull, eye, and limb
the first vetebrates to take advantage of the terrestrial lifestyle
amphibians
__ are tied to a moist environment
amphibians
important adaptations of amniotes
-adaptations for water conservation
-amniotic egg
what are the major differences in metamorphosis between frogs and salamaders?
salamanders keep their tails
carapace (turtle)
the top (ventral) portion
the plastron (turtle)
the bottom (dorsal) surface
how many occipital condyles do reptiles have?
1
what does the arrangement of the nares (nostrils) and eyes enable the alligator to do?
to stay mostly submerged and still breath and see
what does the snout of crocodilia indicate about diet?
the more narrow the snout, the smaller the prey
what is meant by "kinetic skull"?
no dermal bone, they can move their appendages
do all lizards have legs?
no
how do snakes move
pushing off with their sides (serpentine motion)
what effect does the type of substate have on snake locomotion
the rougher the substance, the better movment
the distinguishing features of birds
-scales modified into feathers
-forelimbs modified for flight
-lightweight skeletons
-endothermy (to sustain high levels of muscular activity
what provides ornithologists about information on the diet and ecology of birds?
the beaks and feet
what characterizes mammals?
-having hair
-a muscular diaphragm
-two occipital condyles
-seven cervical vetebrae
-specialized skin glands
-endothermy
-diphyodont teeth
-four chambered hearts
-viviparity
-a single lower jaw bone
what provides mammalogists with information about the diet and ecology of animals?
the skulls and teeth
what are the major orders of class aves?
-order anseriformes (waterfowl)
-order falconiformes (raptors)
-order galliformes (land fowl)
-order gruiformes (cranes and rails)
-order columbiformes (pigeons and doves
-order charadriformes (shore birds)
-order strigiformes (owls)
-order piciformes (wood peckers)
-order passeriformes (perching birds (crows))
what are the major orders of class mammalia? (11)
-order monotremata (monotromes-playapus)
-order marsupiala (marsupials)
-order xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos)
-order rodentia (rodents)
-order lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas)
-order carnivora (carnivores)
-order artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates-pig)
-order primates (primates)
-order chiroptera (bats)
-order perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulate)
what single synapomorphy unites birds?
feathers
what are the three major groups of mammalia?
the monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals
the part of the skull that encloses the brain in mammals
the cranium
the lower jaw of mammals (the mandible) is made up of __
two fused dentary bones
mammals teeth are __
thecodont
thecodont teeth
set into sockets in the dentary bone
mammologists use the __ to express the number and type of teeth found in a given mammal.
dental formula
the only way to distinguish between premolars and molars in mammals
to have both young and adult skulls
premolars are __ where as molars come in only once in a mammals life.
deciduous
mammals teeth are __
heterodont (having different shaped teeth)
mammals that tend to have small, sharply pointed teeth to pierce insect exoskeletons
insectivores
tend to have small incisors, long and pointed canines, and searing cheek teeth (premolars and molars), to snip and cut meat
carnivores
may lack canines and upper incisors but cheek teeth are prominent, broad and rigid, to nip and then grind plant material
herbivores
have chisel-like incisors, no canines, varying cheek teeth. there is usually a diastema, or space between the incisors and cheek teeth
gnawing herbivores
all teeth nearly the same size, flattened molars, diastema
omnivores
what are two major adaptations of amniotes?
water conservation adaptations and an amniotic egg
what usually is in a gizzard of a bird?
pebbles
what is the function of the gizzard?
mastication
what is the function of the crop
temporary storage of food
what characteristics can be used to describe the bird skeleton
-hollow with supports
-loss or fusion of bones
how many occipital condyles do birds have?
1
what does the number of occipital condyles in birds tell us about who their closest relatives were?
reptiles
pectoralis muscles (birds)
lowers the wing
supracoracoideus muscle (birds)
raises the wings
where do the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles attach?
the keel of the sternum and humerous
what are the advantages of fusion?
-the bones are stronger
-more SA for muscle attachment
what are the disadvantages of the fusion of skeletal bones in birds?
restricted movement
what is the function of contour feathers and where are they found?
-acts as a barrier
-along the external surface
what is the function of filoplume feathers and where are they found?
-sensory (tactile)
-concentrated near the beak but are found all over the body
what is the purpose of down feathers and where are they found?
-insulation
-highest density in the breast
2 types of feet and beak shapes
-generalized (relative to a chicken)
-raptorial
teeth found only in carnivores, premolar and molar teeth that sheer past each other to slice meat
carnassials
what are some differences between horns and antlers?
-antlers grow back and are lost every year
-antlers are branched
-antlers are mostly found in males
what types of animals have horns?
bovids
what types of animals have antlers?
cervids
what types of animals have whiskers
-nocturnal animals
-burrowers
what type of mammals have claws?
diggers, carnivores, climbers
what living mammal has the largest claw (by mass).
giant armadillo
what is the largest land mammal to have ever lived?
indricotherium
what is the significance of the monotremes
-they are an evolutionary pathway between mammals and reptiles
-b/c its a mammal that lays reptile-like eggs
what is a perching tendon?
flexor tendons that lock automatically when birds knees are bent and do not unlock until knees are unbent
explain the seemingly odd wing muscle attatchment of birds
better muscle attatchment, has tendon that allows ventral muscle to raise wing
why do many biologists hate house sparrows?
-they are an invasive species (out-compete native species)
-they are exotics (non-native species)
-photoreceptor cells of crustaceans (crawfish) found in eye
-similar to human photoreceptor cells
-made up of the facet, cornea, crystalline cone, and retinula
Ommatidia
five types of appendages of a crawdad:
-maxilliped (near mouth)
-cheliped (pinchers)
-walking legs (perepods) (legs on the thorax)
-swimmerets (legs on the abdomen)
-uropod (fin like end attatchments)
major orders of class insecta
-lepidoptera
-diptera
-coleoptera
-orthoptera
-hymnoptera
-hemiptera
-homoptera
-odonata
-ephemeroptera
-blattodea
-neuroptera
the opening to the water vascular system in sea stars (phylum echinodermata)
madreporite
the digestive glands of sea stars (phylum echinodermata)
pyloric cecae
what kind of teeth do sharks have?
true teeth (dermal in origin)
how many gill slits do lampreys have?
7-9
how many gill slits do sharks have?
5-7
how many gill slits does a perch have?
none. they are covered by bony opercula
what type of scales do lamprey have?
none
what kind of scales do sharks have?
placoid
what kind of scales do perch have?
cycloid, ctenoid, and ganoid
how is the lampreys tail shaped?
diphycercal
how is the sharks tail shaped?
heterocercal
how is the perches tail shaped?
homocercal
what type of fins do lamprey have?
-caudal
-posterior dorsal
-anterior dorsal
what type of fins do sharks have?
-caudal
-posterior dorsal
-anterior dorsal
-pectoral
-pelvic
what type of fins do perch have?
-caudal
-posterior dorsal
-anterior dorsal
-pectoral
-pelvic
-anal (rudder)
what type of skeleton do lampreys have?
cartilanginous
what type of skeleton do sharks have?
cartilaginous
how do lampreys regulate buoyancy? (how do they maintain position in the water column
must swim
how do sharks regulate buoyancy? (how do they maintain position in the water column)
-squalence in liver
-heterocercal tail pushes head up
-manipulate fin positions
how do perch regulate buoyancy? (how do they maintain position in the water column
swim bladder!!!
what houses the statocyst in crawfish?
the antennule, a thin sac attached to the dorsal wall, as it moves, small grains of sand stimulate sensitive hairs
mastication organ of sea urchins
aristotles lantern
holes in the exoskeleton (look like dimples) on insects (used for respiration)
spiricles
stringy structures coming off of viscera into exoskeleton in insects, system of branching tubes (used in respiration)
trachea
why are echinoderms thought to be closely related to the chordates?
because they are deuterostomes
echinodermata larvae that do not have a water-vascular system and are bilaterally symmetrical
bipinnaria
what kind of feet shape do order piciformes (woodpeckers) have?
zygodactyl
what does the metazoan body consist of?
-cells
-body fluids
-extracellular structural elements
different cell types form organized masses or layers called ___.
tissues
may be intracellular such that which makes up the cytoplasm, or extracellular such that makes up blood, lymph, or interstitial spaces
body fluids
either fibrous or formless elements that support the surrounding tissues
extracellular structural elements
unicellular organisms
-all functions are carried out by organelles confined within one cell
-not included in k. anamalia but have some animal-like-features (amoeba)
protoplasmic organization
-cell aggregations
-division of labor among cells but no tissues (sponges)
cellular grade
what kind of symmetry do animals with cellular grade organization have?
NONE!!!
-cells are aggregated into layers called tissues
-animals with this have a central mouth but without heads tend to have radial symmetry (cnidarians)
cell-tissue grade
-tissues of different types are aggregated into special organs
-organisms tend to have bilateral symmetry and cephalization (platyhimenthes
tissue-organ grade
-organs are coordinated into systems that work together
-most animals have this complex level of organization
organ-system grade
the principle covering of animals is the ___.
single-layered epidermis
what kind of integument do nematodes have?
a non-cellular living cuticle over the epidermis
what kind of integument do molluscs have?
a soft epidermis with mucous cells and other gands
what kind of integument do arthopods have?
a chitinous exoskeleton
what kind of integument do chordates have?
a thin epithelial layer (epidermis) and a thicker inner layer (dermis)
what do skeletons provide?
-rigidity for an animals body
-a surface for muscle attachment
-protection of internal organs
two types of rigid skeletons
-exoskeletons
-endoskeletons
the two divisions of the vetebrate skeleton
-axial (skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs)
-appendicular skeleton (limbs and pectoral and pelvic girdle)
4 kinds of epithelial tissues
-squamous
-cubodial
-columnar
-stratified
4 kinds of connective tissue
-loose (areolar)
-adipose
-cartilage
-bone
three kinds of muscle tissues
-skeletal
-smooth
-cardiac
two types of reproductive tissues
-ovary
-testis
locomotion where the whole foot strike the ground
plantigrade
locomotion where just the digits are touching the ground
digitigrade
locomotion on the very tips of the digits
unguligrade
How do sharks regulate their buoyancy?
-squalene in the liver (oil lighter then water)
-heterocercal tail pushes head up
-manipulate fins
reproduction in which an exact copy of the parent is formed via miotic cell division
asexual reproduction
reproduction in which two parents form gametes via meisosis and these unite to form a new individual
sexual reproduction
why is inbreeding bad?
results in less genetic variation
what is the purpose of reproduction?
to create a copy of oneself
what are the main advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
not needing to seek out mates but there is no genetic recombination
an animal that has male and female phases of their life
sequentially hermaphroditic
the single cell all animals begin as
fertilized ovum
protosome development
-the blastophore becomes the mouth
-there is spiral cleavage of cells in the 8 cell stage
deuterosome development
-the blastophore becomes the anus and another opening becomes the mouth
-there is radial cleavage of cells in the 8 cell stage
a stage of embryonic development that is comprised of a solid ball consisting of 16-32 cells
morula stage
speciation
the formation of new species from a common ancestor
phylogeny
a geographical depiction of the evolutionary relationships among taxa
cladistics
a method to reconstruct phylogenies based on cladistic methods
cladogram
a way to view a phylogeny graphically (an evolutionary tree)
what evidence can you find that Hydra can reproduce sexually as well as asexually?
they have gonads
why is a hermaphroditic strategy might be a good one for an internal parasite like flukes?
-hard to find mates in a host (any individual you encounter of the same species is a potential mate)
why are the morula and the blastula stages similar in size to previous and future stages?
because you have division without growth because all energy is devoted to division
the layer covering the inside
endoderm
the layer covering the outside
ectoderm
the layer covering the inside of the endoderm and the outside of the ectoderm
mesoderm
what organisms are formed by the endoderm?
-epithelial lining of digestive system
what organisms are formed by the mesoderm?
-muscular system
-reproductive system
-peritoneum
-calcareous plates of sea stars skeletons
what tissues are formed by the ectoderm?
-nervous tissue
-epitheilial tissue of body surface
parsimony
the phylogeny that has the fewest number of evolutionary steps is MORE LIKELY to be true
why are homologies more useful when building a phylogeny than homoplasies?
because homologies give information on ancestor-descendant relationships.
homology
a character (e.g. "arm bones") that is found in a variety of species and is derived from a structure from a common ancestor
homoplasy
a character (e.g. "wings") that is found in a variety of taxa and is NOT derived from a common ancestor
what is the most important step in creating a phylogeny?
find out information on the ingroup (whatever your care about)
how do immature urochordates feed?
they don't
what is the function of pedicellaria?
grooming
synapomorphies
shared, derived characters
clade
a related group
Character Polarity
the hypothesized sequence of evolutionary transition from character state to character state