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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why do we use scientific drawings?
for better attention to detail and better learning
what are the five steps for all inferential statistics
1. decided on appropriate stat to use
2. calculate test statistic
3. calculate degrees of freedom
4. compare test statistic to critical value in table
5. conclude
2 kinds of stats we use
descriptive and inferential
descriptive statistics
describes a sample
inferential statisics
makes inferences from sample back to population of interest
null hypothesis
the hypothesis of no difference, no change, or no affect
P=
the possibility of making type I error
type I error
something causes deviation in the experiment
type II error
nothing causes change. aka chance
why do we do a T test?
to test for the differences between two means
why do we do a X^2 test?
to test for differences in distribution (difference between observed and expected)
n=
number of observations in a sample
N=
number of observations in two samples being compared
df=
N-1
a p value of what is an indicator of significance?
less then or equal to .05
adaptation
the advantages that organisms gain from possessing a particular character
speciation
the generation of a new species
evolution
a genetic change in a population over time (any change in a populations allele frequencies)
natural selection
the differential survival and reproduction of phenotypes with a genetic basis
genotypes
different combinations of alleles
phenotypes
specific physical and behavioral outcomes
frequency of an allele
p+q=1
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (equation)
p^2+2pq+q^2=1
what does the hardy-Weinberg equilibrium express
if the conditions are met, evolution will not occur
conditions in which a population will not evolve
1. random mating
2. very large population size
3. no selective advantage for any allele
4. no mutation
5. no migration
genetic drift
random change in genotypic frequencies in a population over time
when will genetic drift have the most impact?
small, isolated populations
ecology
the study of the interactions among species and their environment, and the distribution and abundance of animals
competition
--
mutualism
++
predation
+-
food web
a diagram of an ecological community's feeding relationships
factors of distribution
ABIOTIC
-temperature
-water source
-geography
factors of abundance
BIOTIC
-predations
-competing species
-amount of food source
ethogram
a set of comprehensive descriptions of the characteristic behavior patterns of a species
time budget
a descriptive study to examine the frequency of the observed behaviors
ad libitum sampling
any animal, anytime, for any reason (can be biased to the more obvious or interesting behaviors)
focal animal sampling
particular individuals, particular behaviors, specified time.
scan sampling
whole group is measured for a behavior at particular intervals
all animal sampling
entire group is watched for usually one behavior (often used for rare behaviors)
continuous recording
a continuous measure of a single or multiple behaviors, accurate and intensive, but not always necessary
time sampling recording
behavior that is recorded periodically (useful if the behaviors are not brief, rare, or rapidly changing)
one-zero recording
behavior is sampled at intervals (once per minute) and during a recording period (15s)
instantaneous recording
same as one-zero except recording period is instantaneous
sequence recording
can be either continuously recorded or time sampled, but is important if the particular sequence of behavioral events is important
the protists are a ____ group
paraphyletic (do not come of an ancestral protist)
characteristics that unite all protists
1. a protoplasmic level of organization
2. eukaryotic nuclei
3. small size
4. a requirement to live in moist places at least for feeding
what are methods of movement for the protists
cilia, flagella, or pseudopodia
characteristics that unite the kingdom animalia
1. multicellular
2. heterotrophic
3. reproduce sexually (at least sometimes)
4. go through the blastula stage of embryonic development
the three branches of kingdom animalia
mesozoa, parazoa, and eumetazoa
Characteristic that unite the phylum porifera (sponges)
spicules
pinacocytes
flat cells, cover the inner and outer surface
choanocytes
collar cells, flagellated and line the incurrent and outcurrent pores.
mesencyme (porifera)
cells embedded in the noncellular matrix
sponges have ___ level of organizaiton
cellular
how do sponges feed?
by moving water through canals between their cells and removing suspended food particles by ENDOCYTOCIS
asconoid sponges
chanocytes are restircted to the spongeocoel
synconoid sponges
choanocytes occupy the spongeocoel and radial canals
leuconoid sponges
lack a spongocoel, choanocytes found throughout the sponge
characteristics uniting phylum Cndaria (jellyfishes, sea anemones, corals, and hydras)
1. diploblast level of tissue organization
2. radial or biradial symmetry
3. gastrovascular cavity
4. specialized cells called cnidocytes that are located on the tentacles and contain special organelles (nematocysts) that release stinging barbs
three linings of cnidarians (from superficial to deep)
1. epidermis
2. mesoglea
3. gastrodermis
two body forms of phylum cnidaria
polyp-sessile, medusa-mobile (to find mates)
planula
the sexually produced larval form of a cnidarian
why do you think that the larger a sponge is, the more pores it has?
the more it has to feed
why might sponges need to maintain a particular shape?
to filter feed
what body forms are missing from scyphozoans?
polyp
what physical character is missing from the medusa of scyphozoans that is found in hydrozoans
velum
what is the adaptive use of septa
structural support with less material (studs in a wall)
characteristics of phylum platyhelminthes (acoelmates)
-bilateral symmetry
-triploblastic
the three major classes of phylum plathelminthes
class tubellaria (flatworms)
class trematoda (flukes)
class cestoda (tapeworms)
defining characteristics of pseudocoelomates
1. a pseudocoelom or "false" cavity
2. an outer non-living cuticle
3. a complete digestive tract (both mouth and anus)
4. juveniles instead of larvae
5. separate sexes (DIOECIOUS)
6. a tri-radiate pharynx
the major phylums of the Pseudocoelomates
phylum nematoda
phylum rotifera
phylum nematomorpha
phylum acanthocephala
taxis
direct movement toward or away from a stimulus
kinesis
wandering around until you get closer to a stimulus
why does it make sense that the gastrovacular system of tubellaria is so branched?
so it can distribute nutrients throughout its body
what two phyla were hosts to the parasitic flatworms?
phylum cordata and phylum mulusca
what is the advantage of a two-host system over a one-host system?
it reduces competition between the different stages
what is meant by a pseudocoelom?
mesoderm lines the inside of ectoderm
what is the outer covering of pseudocoelomates?
non-living cuticle
what purpose does the corona serve besides feeding in phylum rotifera?
movement
cephalization
localization or centralization of sensory structures or nervous system
dioecious
separate sexs
monoecious
both sexs in same individual
eucoelomated
mesoderm lines inside of ecto and outisde of endoderm
characteristics of mullusca
posses a mantle (a specialized tissue that secreates a shell)
a muscular foot
a visceral mass that contains the reproductive system
metanephridia (excritory system)
major classes of phylum mollusca
class scaphopoda (tooth and tusk shells)
class polyplacophora (chitons)
class gastropoda (snails, slugs, limpets)
class cephalopoda (squids and octopuses)
class bivalvia (mussels and clams)
defining characteristics of phylum annelida (the truly SEGMENTED worms)
1. metamerism
2. a large coelom
3. a closed circulatory system
4. a well-developed nervous system
major classes of phylum annelida (truly SEGMENTED worms)
class plychaeta (worms with nasty pinchers)
class hirudinea (leaches)
class oligochaeta (earthworms)
mantle
a specialized tissue that secretes a shell, may be modified into specialized gills or lungs
what organs are found within the visceral mass of pylum mollusca?
the reproductive system, the digestive system, and the metanephrida (excretory system)
do muscles have an open or closed circulatory system?
open
metamerism
being composed of serially repeated parts
what is the function of the two external suckers on leeches?
attachment while sucking blood, some movement
how is a leech different from a polychate?
they entirely lack setae
what is the purpose of the earthworms clitellum?
used to secrete a cocoon around fertalized eggs
parsitism
-+
commensalism
0+
animals that consume dead organic material
decomposers
why are there fewer consumers than producers in a community
because lower trophic levels can only support a much smaller trophic level due to the innefficincy of energy conversion (2nd law of thermodynamics)
why does it rain?
clouds are made of air saturated with moisture. when that moist air becomes cold it can no longer hold that moisture so it falls.
which direction do the arrows in a food web point?
they diagram the flow of energy. form whatever is having its energy consumed to whatever is consuming that energy. ie tree--->beaver