Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/177

Click to flip

177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aristocracy
ruled by rich families
autocracy
government or control by one person who has complete power
bureaucracy
large group of people who do government workk
Centralization
system where one central group of people gives instructions to regional groups
cultural diffusion
borrowing by one culture of attractive elements from another culture
dynasty
succession of rulers from the same family
justice
the righteous act ( see Hammurabi's code)
Monarchy
government ruled by one ruler(king)
Republic
government led by elected officials
social class system
hierarchy ...like caste system
different people get different privileges because of their wealth or the type of family they belong to(pg 55)
Tribune
roman officials who could veto the decisions of the consuls and the state
Maurya Dynasty
(321-185 BC) Chandragupta Maurya took over western India once conquered by Alexander the great
Civilization
a large group of cultures with a high degree of social and technological develeopment
clergy
official leaders of the religious activities of a particular group of belivers
Chandragupta
founder of Maurya civilization
(there was also a Chandragupta who founded the Gupta civilization) ruled fro 321-298BC used Persian government tactics to govern a vast territory : organized empire into small provinces
Romulus and Remus
adopted sons of Mars ( god of war) raised by wolfs
saw 7 vultures flying 7 times around 7 hills and decided to establish the roman empire
Romulus killed remus and started ROME
Nomads
people who travel from one place to another rather than living in one place all the time
they didn't just wander though they followed a set path
Phoenicians
seafaring merchants : created alphabet letter similar to that used today
River Valley
early civilizations formed near rivers; for agricultural resons
fertile soil etc
analects
collections of Confucius' work
egypt
Located next to nile river
remember: pharoh
nile
hieroglyphics
papyrus
ka
mummies
Chinese Civilization
beside Huange He river
mecca
holiest Islam city where Muhammad was born
in Saudi Arabia
all Muslims required to make pilgrimage there
Shang Dynasty
the dynasty after Xia dynasty
pg 62
Grand Canal
during the tang dynasty ; emperor sui built the grand canal that connected the Huang he to the Huai and the Yangtze rivers; improved communications
pg 163
Yellow River (aka Huang He)
located on China where Chinese Civilization was developed (pg 59)
had yellow soil ( very fertile)
Papyrus
Egyptian made paper from papyrus plants
wrote on then in hieroglyphics
Cuneiform
Sperian writing system
used wedge shaped marks in clay tablets using sticks
had over 700 symbols
first writing system
Confucius
aka Kong Fuzi
pretty cool dude
philosopher
Confucianism
Philosophy based on teachings of Confucius
no worship of gods or after life
R-E-S-P-E-C-T
Dynasty Cycle
THE NEW DYNASTY
growth
prosperity
THE AGING DYNASTY
period of decline
THE PROBLEMS
corruption
ineffective rulers
disease
natural disasters
period of turmoil
fighting ova powerrr
WI Di
martial emperor
Five Key Rleationship
from Confucius' " analects"
1)respect w/ teachers and students
2)respect between brothas and sistas
3)respect towards elders
4)respect to parents
5)respect w/ ruler and people
6)respect ali g and aritha franklin
Golden age
greece rome and india had period of intellectual super stardom
600 bc -500ad
Zhou dynasty
established after rebellion against the shang dynasty by declaring that the shang ruler was beat and thus couldnt rule
originated the concept of mandate o' heaven
pg 83
Chandragupta II
the 3rd gupta emperor
won control of the trade with the iddle east and china
Jerusalem
where Jesus was born
jewish city of worship
Great Wall
during Qin dynasty
shi huangdi ordered to build the great wall to keep out huns and Mongols and people from Lawrenceville
over 1500 miles long
Theodora
wife of Justinian who supported him
Laozi
a philosepher who lived at same time as confucious
taoism is the following of his teachings
Mandate of Heaven
that you can replace rulers that are unfit to rule
authority given by heaven to rule
Han dynasty
after death of Qin emperor Liu Bang established the Han dynasty (122)
Shi huangdi
the first emperor of the Qin d
governed by principals of legalism
Silk road
famous trade route that connects rome to the east
spread cultures
Hannibal
Carthangian leader who lead punic war
Gupta dynasty
Magadha Chandragupta unitnes india again and forms sweet empire
Whu Zhao aka empress wu
onlyh female monarch of china
most remarkable influential and mysterious woman in chinese history
took over when Kao Tsung got sick
tang dynasty
Alexander the great
son of king of macedonia Philip II and student of aristotel
conquered persia egypt greece and syria
dies at 33
Archimedes
created Catapult ...grappling device....pully and principal of specific gravity during the golden age of greece
Aristotle
looked at stars
Athens
one of the greek city-states which had the most power and influence .it also has been known for creating the first democracy
the city was the base for the cultural achievements of greece
Patriach
man who exercised autheraty as a " pater failias" over an extended family. The system of such rules of families by seniro males is called a patriarchy
Democracy
Government that the citizens participate in and vote
Direct democracy
see democracy
Euclid
greek mathematician who contributed in geometry. His famous works include "elements"
Draco
Cruel leader of athens who made harsh laws
DRACIONIAN
Hippocrates
famous greek doctor who developed medicines and organized diseases . He is also famous for the oath that docs have to take saying they will treat patients w/ best care
Delian league
greek city-states in an alliance to protect and defeat the persians
Herodotus
father of history in greece
tried to record history without bias
Homer
storyteller
oral stories because of no written history
ancient greece
Vladimir
grandson of Princess olga who converted russian religion to eastern orhodox
I-Ching
book of change
chinese used it
future telling device
Alexandria
VIP city in egypt
when Alexander da great conquered egypt he named this city alexandria and developed this city in to Hellenistic culture ( Hellenistic culture+ persian + greek)
Tyranny
type of government in which some aristocrats rule
in ancient greece tyrants were aristocrats who had gained power by getting the support of the poor people bye gicing then land and freeing them from slavery
Triumvirate
three people ruling together
first triumvirate=julius ceasar Crassus and Pompey
Gracchus Brothers
(Tiberius and Gaius )
tribunes in tome who spoke againts the patricians. They harshly criticized the riches; therefore the patricians murdered them
Pope Leo I
roman aristocrat who was Pope fro 400-461
he is the first pope to whom the title "the great " has been attached . He convinced Attila the hun to not attack rome
Greece
a contry in south-easter Europe situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula
place where greek civilization flourished
Great Schism
in 1054 Christianity split into 2 religions -eastern Orthodox and Catholicism
Bread and Circus
Bread and circuses is a phrase which can describe either government policies to pacify the citizens. roman emperor gave unlimited bread and entertained to prevent revolts
Peloponnesia
one of the regions in Greece where sparta had control
this region eventually leads to the peloponnesian league led by sparta. The peloponnesian war is the war between Peloponnesian league and another Athenian league
Pompey
one one of the members of the 1st triumvirate. Distinguished military and political leader of the late roman republic. Pompey was defeated by his rival Julius Ceasar and runs to egypt but gets shot anyway
Pericles
prominent and influential statesman..orator and genera of athens in the city's golden age
Plato
he was a philosopher and student of Socrates
he wrote the book " republic" which he said was the idea form of gov . He also established the academy which lasted for 900 years
Polis
city-states
Persian wars
the wars beween greece and persia . Greece won the battle of Thermopylae and Salamis by using brains.
Punic Wars
war between Phoenician city of Carthage and Rome . ROme wanted to invade Sicily(trading center)
1st punic war- rome won by conquering sicily
2nd -Hannibal crosses alps and attacks rome but roman general attacked Carthage so Hannible had to return to Carthage
3rd-Rome attacked Carthage again and conquered it
Socrates
greek philospher who questioned the values and behaviors of people
he was sentenced to death for "corrupting" athenians
Diocletian
roman emperor; he restricted the freedom of most people; doubled size of army;divided empire into east and west
Sparta
one of the city-states in Greece which had the most important military power.
Culture wasn't as developed as greece
Spartans loved war and fighting
Helot
spartan slave states
non-citizens who worked industries such as agriculture
Totalitarian
of or relating to centralizedd contol by an autocratic leader or hierarchy
Venetians
people from venice; great merchants
Haiga Sophia
great church of byzantine empire
turned into mosque by muslims
Sanskrit
indian writing
known for the holy writing in Buddhism and HInduism
Octavian
grandnephew of Jusius Caesar
formed 2nd triumvirate with lepidus and Marc Antony
he defeats both of them and becomes first roman emperor named himself agustus
Asoka
Buddhist king who converted his people into Buddhism
son of Chandgragupta
Augustus Caesar
Last Roman emperor ( and first) 16 years old when he became the emperor
Icon
religion figures in the church
Iconoclast
person who goes against traditional values or beliefs
came from "icon breakers'
the eastern orthadox church didnt belive in icons of anykind
Christianity
religion of the teachings of Jesus
Constantine
Established the edict of Milan and converted Rome to Christianity on his deathbed
Fall of Rome
when rome fell
for various reasons (military peoles faith etc 476 AD
Constantinople
Capital of Byzantine Empire
Julius Caesar
military genius
extended roman empire waaay alot
centralized roman bureaucracy
killed by BFF
Patricians
the wealthy landowners that organized rebellion and created new government and brought benefits to themselves
Pax Romana
200 year period when under augustus the roman empire was in peace security and had lots of cultural accomplishments
"roman peace"
Plebians
a person from a lower roman social class
made up 90% of the population
they were soldiers and farmers
Excomunication
being kicked out of a religion
Senate
senate had most power
appointed members of teh senate for life terms
in rome
Twelve Tables
Plebians ordered that the laws should be made publicly known
written on 12 bronze tablets in 450 BC
Animisn
belief that all things have anima(or spirit)
Monotheism
belief in 1 god
Polytheism
belief in more than one god
(most eastern religions)
Buddhism
grew out of hindusim and the teachings of siddhartha
people believe in reincarnation
belive people can be set free of suffering by following 8 fold path
Daoism
Lao-tzu was founder
achiving inner peace
values-be humble and kind
dont try to change what happens to you
Eightfold Path
1)intention to resist evil
2)Knowledge of truth
3)respect for life morality and property
4)Holding a job that doesnt injure others
5)working to free one's mind of evil
6)controlling one's feelings and thoughts
7)Saying nothing to hurt others
8)practicing proper forms of concentration
Enlightenment
Sate of finding knowledge and nirvana
Jesus Christ
Born in Bethlehem in Israel
when he was young he lived in Nazreth and worked as a carpenter
preached to poor and weak
Bible
recording of Jesus' teachings
Apostles
the 12 followers of Jesus Christ
Siddhartha Gautama
founded Buddhism
was originally rich but then became a wanderer
Nirvana
when your soul merges with the universe (sought in Buddhism)
New Testament
contains Jesus' teachings and lessons
Pope
dudes that lead roman catholic church
Aryans
aryans invaded Gupta empire
introduced caste system
Caste System
devides people into 4 groups
-Brahmin-priestly
-Kshatriyas-rulers &warriors
-Vaisyas-merhcants and professionals
-Sudras- workers and servants

untouchables-3rd formers ewwwww
Dharma
the form in which a person is reincarnated is based on the kind of life he/she has lived
Hinduism
-reincarnation
-belived in thousands of gods(shiva..Vishnu...Brahma..etc0
Karma
the balance of good and evil that determines the fate of a soul
Moksha
final release from one's wordly conception of self
Reincarnation
No one truly dies and people are born into new bodies
Untouchables
grouping outside of caste syste
did jobs other people were forbidden to do (tanning leather and collecting garbage)
Allah
God in Islam
Five pillars
islamic rules to live by
1) pray 5 times a day
2)accept Allah as the only god and Muhammad as the Prophet
3)Fast during Ramadan
4)give $$$ to poor
5)make journy to holy city of mecca
6)dont drink or eak pork
Hijra
journey that Muhammad made from mecca to medina
Islam
Muslim religion lead by Muhammad
Jihad
struggle
anywhere fro inward spiritual stuggle to political or military struggle
Koran (Qu'ran)
the islam equivalent to the Bible
sets ideas about justice and good in islamic culture
Muhammad
The prophet of islam
taught 5 pillars
Muslim
the followers of islam and Muhammad
Ramadan
Muslims fast during the daylight hours for a month
holy celibration
Abraham
in Bible brought people to Cannaan and named it Israel
Covenant
G-d's promise to humans
Diaspora
the period when the Babylonians exiled the Jews from Israel
refers to the scattering of migration of people
Judasim
religion
became foundation of Christianity and had strong influence on islam
Moses
freed jews from slavery in egypt
Old Testament
Part of Bible Jesus is not in
divided into catagories of law..history...poetry...wisdom..and prophecy
Sunna
teachings of Muhammad
10 Commandments
G-d established these 10 laws for Christians to keep the community harmonious
covered general stuff like dont steal kill people worship false idols
Torah
important Jewish Text
Bubonic Plague
Spanish influenza that had great impact of Byzantine empire 'cause lots of people died
Sunni
Sunnies belived that caliph did not have to be Muhammad'd descendant
Catholic Church
occupies in the western part of Byzantine empire and supports icons
rulled by pope
talia dutcher
Shi'ite
opposed to the Umayyed Dynasty
Sufi
Sufism is a mystic tradion of islam that encompasses a divers range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah
Crusade
fight where Christians tried to convert people(mostly muslims) by killing them
Czar
king
means Caeser in slavic languagw
Germanic Invasions
lead to fall of Roman empire
Emperor Leo III
burned all the icons and images of Christianity
Battle of Tours
Germanic Franks forced Arabs back to spain
HOly Roman Empire
prosperd for a long time and mad e lots of cultural advancements
not really sure what they actually did
serfs
peasents
Caliph
means successor
Sati
tradition in which wives commit suicide in their husband funeral pyre
Yarolsav the wise
made trade alliances...created legal code and made first library in Russia
also made lots of churches
Thithes
Voluntary taxes
Abbassid Dynasty
abbassid family is decended form Abba (and uncle of Muhammad ) and they claimed the office of caliph
Primacy
Ambrose(the bishop of Milan) disagreed with emperor Theodosius on the issue of primacy
-church leaders are above kings because they are responsible for saving souls of everyone
Umayyed Dynasty
Muslim governor of Syria rebelled and established the umayyad dynasty
-capital=Damascus
-Umayyed rulers led the muslim world until 750 AD
Vikings
people from Scandinavian countries in Europe
hope kauffman
invaded places
specialized in raping pillaging and plundering
Patriarch
lead the eastern orthadox church
shari'a
government book from the ulemas
Ottoman Turk
led the fall of the byzantine empire
Byzantine empire
-capital is Constantinople
-Christianity= main religion
-greek is official language
Kiev
capital of Russia
Eastern Orthodox Church
dont use images or icons
Justinian
succeeds in byzantine empire
conquered lots and lots of territory
Ghengis Khan
stated that russians can practice their own religion
Cryllic Alphabet
two missionaries traveled to slavics in 860
Cyrill and Methodius made this alphabet
russians Bulgarians and Serbs still use this alphabet
-alphabet adopted by moravians
Reconquista
under the Castillian kings the Reconquista ( or reconquest) of the Iberian Peninsula became a religious crusade
Moors
another name for muslims
Russia
furry hats
vodka
located in northern asia
Charles Martel
led franks during the battle of tours
Slavs
developed in Ural Mountains
i dont know much about them
Boyars
Russian nobles
-also people from boyertown????
Huns
hearders who occupied the lands of north china
warlike nomads
famous for shooting arrows and riding at same time
Huns got revenge of Chinese who took over the hun's pasture land by raiding chinese cites