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131 Cards in this Set

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Polis
emerged, city-state, political & social urban center (Athens, early Rome)
8th Century
Homer
Homer: 8th B.C. Greek epic poet, wrote the Illiad & the Odyssey
8th BC
Lycurgus
Lycurgus: 7th B.C. Spartan leader, militarized the society, prohibited coinage
7th BC
Hoplites
Hoplites: 7th B.C. changed warfare, no heroes, just lots of men, phalanx formation
7th BC
Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes: 6th B.C. Athenian archon, reformed elections, introduced ostracism
6th BC
Cincinnatus
Cincinnatus: 5th B.C. Roman Consul, appointed dictator for 6 months to defeat the Aequi
5th BC
Socrates
Socrates: 5th B.C. Athenian philosopher, Plato's teacher, reexamine all assumptions
5th BC
Thucydides
Thucydides: 5th B.C. Greek historian, wrote on war between Athens & Sparta
5th BC
Sophocles
Sophocles: 5th B.C. Athenian, wrote /Oedipus at Colonus/, Greek tragedies
5th BC
Pericles
Pericles: 5th B.C. Athenian leader, paid day's wages for assembly participants
5th BC
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great: 4th B.C. king of Macedonia, conquered known world, founded Alexandria
4th BC
Aristotle
Aristotle: 4th B.C. Athenian philosopher, Plato's student, happiness through virtue
4th BC
Plato
Plato: 4th B.C. Athenian philosopher, wrote /Republic/, said smart "guardians" should rule
4th BC
Epicurus
Epicurus: 4th B.C. Greek philosopher, pleasure & serenity of mind are best good
4th BC
Punic Wars
Punic Wars: 3rd B.C. Rome vs. Carthage, 3 wars, Rome won, destroyed Carthage city in 146
3rd BC
Stoicism
Stoicism: 3rd B.C. philosophy, founded by Zeno (Athenian), relative evil, no control
3rd BC
Zeno
Zeno: 3rd B.C. Athenian, founded Stoicism, materialist, lack of control in world
3rd BC
Hannibal
Hannibal: 3rd B.C. Carthaginian general, invaded Italy, defeated at Zama by Scipio
3rd BC
Polybius
Polybius: 2nd B.C. Greek historian, national cycles of growth/decay, liked Rome (balance)
2nd BC
Gracci Borthers
Gracchus Brothers: 2nd B.C. Roman tribunes, land law restricts large holdings
2nd BC
Marius
Marius: 1st B.C. Roman general, eliminated property requirement for the army
1st BC
Pompey
Pompey: 1st B.C. Roman general, conquered Syria & Palestine, defeated by Caesar
1st BC
Sulla
Sulla: 1st B.C. Roman general, appointed dictator (unlimited term), retired 3 yrs later
1st BC
Augustus
Augustus: 1st B.C. first Roman emperor, public services, tax/monetary reform
1st BC
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar: 1st B.C. marched on Rome, became dictator, conquered Gaul, Julian calendar
1st BC
Cicero
Cicero: 1st B.C. influential Roman Stoic, orator, and writer
1st BC
Nero
Nero: 1st A.D. Roman emperor, popular w/masses, built "Golden House" and baths
1st AD
Tacitus
Tacitus: 1st A.D. historian, wrote /Agricola/ & /Germania/, moral indictment of Rome
1st AD
Tiberius
Tiberius: 1st A.D. Roman emperor, skilled administrator, problems w/Senate, angered elite
1st AD
Hardian
Hadrian: 2nd A.D. Roman emperor, built wall in Northen Britain, defensive policy
2nd AD
Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism: 3rd A.D. philosophy, founded by Plotinus, withdrawal from world, mysticism
3rd AD
Asceticism
Asceticism: 3rd A.D. major Neoplatonic doctrine, emancipate soul, subjugate body
3rd AD
Augustine
Augustine: 4th A.D. Bishop of Hippo, Christian intellect, human evils & good afterlife
4th AD
Constantine
Constantine: 4th A.D. Roman emperor, Christian, instituted hereditary succession
4th AD
Justinian
Justinian: 6th A.D. eastern Roman emperor, codified Roman law, tried recovering the west
6th AD
St. Benedict
St. Benedict: 6th A.D. founded Benedictine Monks, Latin rule, poverty, chastity, etc.
6th AD
Clovis
Clovis: 6th A.D. established Frankish royal dynasty (Merovingian), Catholic king
6th AD
Hegira/Hijrah
Hegira/Hijrah: 7th A.D. Muslim migration with Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina)
7th AD
Muhammad
Muhammad: 7th A.D. founded Islam, moved w/followers to Yathrib (Medina) in the Hijrah
7th AD
Charles Martel
Charles Martel: 8th A.D. Frankish king, consolidated Frankish state, beat Muslims at Tours
8th AD
Manorialism
Manorialism: 9th A.D. decentralized govt, self-sufficient manors w/surrounding lands
9th AD
Charlemagne
Charlemagne: 9th A.D. Frankish king, conquered Saxons & converted them, Roman emperor
9th AD
Gregory VII
Gregory VII: 11th A.D. Pope, called on laity to help discipline their priests
11th AD
Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy: 11th A.D., can a layman (Henry IV) appoint bishops/abbots?
11th AD
Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings: 11th A.D. (1066) William's Normans defeated King Harold's English
11th AD
Henry IV
Henry IV: 11th A.D. Holy Roman emperor, fought Saxons, finally abased himself to the Pope
11th AD
Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa: 12th A.D. Holy Roman emperor, let German princes rule freely
12th AD
Henry II
Henry II: 12th A.D. king of England, instituted grand juries, trial juries, procedures
12th AD
Richard I
Richard I: 12th A.D. "Lionheart", helped lead the 3rd Crusade, able general
12th AD
St. Thomas Becket
St. Thomas Becket: 12th A.D. Archbishop of Canterbury, killed by Henry II's knights
12th AD
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
St. Bernard of Clairvaux: 12th A.D. Cistercian preacher/monk, asceticism
12th AD
Boniface VIII
Boniface VIII: 13th A.D. pope, end of papal monarchy, many disputes with kings
13th AD
Dante
Dante: 13th A.D. wrote Divine Comedy, expelled from Florence
13th AD
Dominicans
Dominicans: 13th A.D. monastic order, fight heresy & convert Jews/Muslims
13th AD
Innocent III
Innocent III: 13th A.D. Pope, summoned 4th Crusade (which failed miserably)
13th AD
John I
John I: 13th A.D. English king, forced by barons to sign Magna Carta
13th AD
St. Francis of Assisi
St. Francis of Assisi: 13th A.D. rich Italian gave away everything, founded Franciscans
13th AD
St. Francis of Assisi
St. Francis of Assisi: 13th A.D. rich Italian gave away everything, founded Franciscans
13th AD
Frederick II
Frederick II: 13th A.D. Holy Roman emperor, recovered Sicily & Jerusalem
13th AD
St. Thomas Aquinas
St. Thomas Aquinas: 13th A.D. French Dominican, defended faith through reason
13th AD
Saint Louis IX
Saint Louis IX: 13th A.D. French king, well loved, brought peace/prosperity to France
13th AD
Philip IV
Philip IV: 13th A.D. French king, centralized govt, Estates General, reduced papal power
13th AD
Magna Carta
Magna Carta: 13th A.D. document limited royal power in taxes, trials & law
13th AD
Chaucer
Chaucer: 14th A.D. English writer, vernacular literature, Canterbury Tales, human comedy
14th AD
Crecy
Crecy: 14th A.D. Hundred Years' War battle in 1346, outnumbered English beat French
14th AD
Edward III
Edward III: 14th A.D. English king during successful campaigns in France in 100 yrs war
14th AD
Estates General
Estates General: 14th A.D. French assembly, represented clergy, nobility, and populace
14th AD
Giotto
Giotto: 14th A.D. Florentine naturalist painter, first to use perspective
14th AD
Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War: 14th A.D. between France and England, succession of French throne
14th AD
Petrarch
Petrarch: 14th A.D. Italian Renaissance humanist writer, sonnets, committed Catholic
14th AD
Black Death
Black Death: 14th A.D. combined bubonic & pneumonic plagues, reduced populations
14th AD
Boccaccio
Boccaccio: 14th A.D. realist, wrote vernacular prose on love, sex, humor, i.e. people
14th AD
Humanism
Humanism: 15th A.D. Italian Renaissance ideal, study of Latin/Greek language/literature
15th AD
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc: 15th A.D peasant girl, lead French army against British, series of victories
15th AD
Masaccio
Masaccio: 15th A.D. Italian painter, began perspective/depth, "imitate nature"
15th AD
Cosimo de Medici
Cosimo de Medici: 15th A.D. founded Platonic Academy in Florence
15th AD
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci: 15th A.D. Florentine artist/engineer/inventor/etc., Mona Lisa
15th AD
Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni: 15th A.D. civic humanist, writes on importance of Latin & Greek studies
15th AD
Calvin
Calvin: 16th A.D. French protestant & lawyer, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion
16th AD
Castiglione
Castiglione: 16th A.D. wrote /The Book of the Courtier/, etiquette, "Renaissance man"
16th AD
Zwingli
Zwingli: 16th A.D. Swiss Catholic priest, started reforms similar to Luther's, moderate
16th AD
Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada: 16th A.D. sent to invade Britain, almost half lost, Protestants win
16th AD
Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg: 16th A.D. "as the ruler, so the religion", legalized Lutheranism
16th AD
Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon: 16th A.D. lord chancellor of England, "inductive method", experiments
16th AD
Charles V
Charles V: 16th A.D. Holy Roman emperor during Luther & Henry VIII troubles
16th AD
Copernicus
Copernicus: 16th A.D. Polish clergyman/astronomer, earth goes around the sun
16th AD
Council of Trent
Council of Trent: 16th A.D. reaffirms all tenets challenged by Protestant reformers
16th AD
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes: 16th A.D. limited religious freedom to Huguenots, Henry IV of France
16th AD
Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I: 16th A.D. English queen, Tudor, Elizabethan Compromise (marvel of obscurity)
16th AD
Erasmus
Erasmus: 16th A.D. "prince of Christian humanists", popular writer, pacifist
16th AD
Habsburgs
Habsburgs: 16th A.D. Catholic ruling family of Spain, Germany, and Austria
16th AD
Jesuits
Jesuits: 16th A.D. founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, vanguard of Counter-Reformation
16th AD
Saint Ignatius Loyola
Saint Ignatius Loyola: 16th A.D. founded Society of Jesus (Jesuits), Counter-Reformist
16th AD
Martin Luther
Martin Luther: 16th A.D. German monk, justification by faith, began Protestant Reformation
16th AD
Machiavelli
Machiavelli: 16th A.D. Florentine political philosopher, necessity over morality/ideals
16th AD
Michelangelo
Michelangelo: 16th A.D. Florentine painter (worked in Rome), Neoplatonic idealist
16th AD
Philip II
Philip II: 16th A.D. Spanish king, launched Armada against England, lost the Netherlands
16th AD
St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre
St Bartholemew's Day Massacre: 16th A.D. Paris, French Calvinists (protestants) killed
16th AD
Bodin
Bodin: 16th A.D. French lawyer, reestablish state powers, maintain order, unlimited govt.
16th AD
Charles I
Charles I: 17th A.D. English/Scottish king, Petition of Right (against him), civil war
17th AD
Junkers
Junkers: 17th A.D. powerful landlords, gave up rights to govt participation in Prussia
17th AD
Locke
Locke: 17th A.D. English writer/philosopher, Contract Theory of govt, natural law
17th AD
Colbert
Colbert: 17th A.D. Louis XIV's mercantilist finance minister, joint-stock companies
17th AD
Cromwell
Cromwell: 17th A.D. English, lead Independents, overthrew Charles I, became dictator
17th AD
Descartes
Descartes: 17th A.D. one of founders of Scientific Revolution, "I think, therefore I am"
17th AD
Galileo
Galileo: 17th A.D. Italian scientist, promoted Copernican heliocentric views
17th AD
Hobbes
Hobbes: 17th A.D. English philosopher, absolute state power, bad view of human nature
17th AD
Louis XIV
Louis XIV: 17th A.D. "the Sun King" of France, most effective royal absolutist
17th AD
Mercantilism
Mercantilism: 17th A.D. direct govt intervention in economic policy, encouraged colonies
17th AD
Richelieu
Richelieu: 17th A.D. French first minister, suppressed Huguenots, got in 30 Years War
17th AD
Newton
Newton: 17th A.D. English scientist, invented calculus, worked w/optics, gravity, planets
17th AD
Pascal
Pascal: 17th A.D. French moral philosopher, mathematician, made first calculator
17th AD
William III (of Orange)
William III (of Orange): 17th A.D. English king in "Glorious Revolution", anti-Louis XIV
17th AD
Glorius Revolution
Glorious Revolution: 17th A.D. William of Orange, political/religious freedom in England
17th AD
Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus: 17th A.D. Lutheran Sweedish king, invaded Germany to fight Catholics
17th AD
Thirty Years War
Thirty Years War: 17th A.D. Germany/France/England, originally Catholic v. Protestant
17th AD
James II
James II: 17th A.D. King of England, catholic, tried to convert England, tried bishops
17th AD
Laissez Faire
Laissez faire: 18th A.D. economic theory, small government, no interference in economy
18th AD
Louis XVI
Louis XVI: 18th A.D. French king reestablished parlements, limiting monarchy's power
18th AD
Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa: 18th A.D. Austrian empress, statewide primary education, taxed clergy
18th AD
Montesquieu
Montesquieu: 18th A.D. French Enlightenment, wrote /Spirit of Laws/, checks & balances
18th AD
Beccaria
Beccaria: 18th A.D. Enlightenment thinker/writer, rational ideals
18th AD
Cottage Industry
Cottage Industry: 18th A.D. rural Europeans produced & sold wool products in their homes
18th AD
Diderot
Diderot: 18th A.D. Enlightenment thinker and writer
18th AD
Hume
Hume: 18th A.D. Scottish Enlightenment philosopher and historian
18th AD
Philosophes
Philosophes: 18th A.D. French Enlightenment thinkers (Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, etc)
18th AD
Physiocrats
Physiocrats: 18th A.D. Enlightenment economists, simple taxes, land wealth, laissez faire
18th AD
Robespierre
Robespierre: 18th A.D. ruthless French radical leader, member of Committee of Public Safety
18th AD
Rousseau
Rousseau: 18th A.D. French philosophe, popular sovereignty & democracy, govt from people
18th AD
Adam Smith
Adam Smith: 18th A.D. Scottish Enlightenment economist, laissez faire, "invisible hand"
18th AD
Voltaire
Voltaire: 18th A.D. French Enlightenment writer, guest at Frederick the Great's court
18th AD