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101 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The basic unit of the nervous system is the ______.
neuron
These types of nerves bring information into the system
receptors (affectors)
These nerves respond to stimuli and send information
effectors
Name the two types of effector nerves and the system they affect.
mechanical (somatic system)
chemical (visceral system)
Another name for the cell body of a neuron is the:
perikaryon
The ______, which form the _____ matter of the nervous system, are long extensions of the neuron and carry impulses away from it (one per cell).
axons, white
This protective coating covers axons.
myelin sheath
These cells produce the myelin sheath in the 1) central nervous system 2) peripheral nervous system
1) oligodendroglial
2) Schwann
These multiple short extensions from the cell body carry impulses toward the cell.
dendrites
This is the name for a collection of nerve cell bodies in the 1) CNS 2)PNS
1) nucleus
2) ganglion
Indentations betweeen adjacent protective cells in the myelin sheath,the _______ allow the signal to travel faster through a process called _______.
Nodes of Ranvier, saltation
The general name for cells that support, nourish, and insulate neurons is:
neuroglial cells
These supporting cells nourish the neuron.
astrocytes
These protective neural cells engulf foreign substances around the neuron.
microglia
These supportive cells line the canals of the brain/spinal cord.
ependymal cells
Nerve cell bodies are located _______ the CNS for sensory and _______ for motor nerves.
outside, inside
This type of nerve ending senses pain.
naked
These two types of nerve endings sense touch.
Merkel's disk
Meissner's corpuscle
This type of nerve ending senses pressure.
Pacinian corpuscle
This type of nerve ending senses heat.
Ruffini's corpuscle
This type of nerve ending senses cold.
Krause's end bulb
These two types of nerve ending are responsible for sensing position in space, also knows as _________.
neuromuscular spindle
neurotendinous organ
proprioception
When innervated tissue is widely distributed, the nerve is _______, when the nerve endings are localized, it is _____.
general, specific
This nerve type controls the visceral activity of the peripheral nervous system.
autonomic
The autonomic nervous system can be divided into two parts:
1) sympathetic (thoraco-lumbar)
2) parasympathetic (cranio-sacral)
Ganglia develop from which embryonic cells?
neural crest cells
T/F: In the embryo, each myotome contains several nerves.
False
These lines of ganglia lie alongside the spinal column.
Paried sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral)
These chemicals transfer a nerve impulse across the synapse.
neurotransmitters (amines)
Nerves fire on an all-or-nothing basis. What is the name for the level of stimulation required, and how can this be accomplished?
threshold concentration
summation
A _________ reflex takes the direct sensory --> motor path and contains ___ neurons.
monosynaptic, 2
A __________ reflex takes the path: receptor --> ________ --> motor and contains ___ neurons.
disynaptic, interneuron, 3
A ____ is a multiple branching of peripheral nerves. There are two: what are they called?
plexus
brachial plexus
lumbosacral plexus
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as the _______ and contains spinal nerves ____ through ____.
thoracolumbar, T1-L2
The parasympathetic division of the ANS is also known as the _______ and contains these nerves:
craniosacral
CN III, VII, IX, X, and lateral gray S2-S4
(T/F) In amniotes, function cannot be inferred from position of nerves.
True
In nonmammalian vertebrates, three anatomical nervous divisions are apparent:
1) cranial
2) spinal
3) enteric (wall of digestive tract)
Nonmammalian vertebrate neurons mingle to form woven patches called _____. There are two. Name them and their locations.
plexus1<br />1) myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus<br /> - smooth muscle of intestines<br />2) submucosal (Meissner's) plexus<br /> - deep in smooth muscle near intestinal lumen
In amniotes, dorsal root ganglion transmit ______ information.
sensory, both somatic and visceral
(T/F) In lampreys, dorsal and ventral roots join laterally along the nerve cord.
False
Lamprey ventral roots are which type of nerve and what do they innervate?
somatic motor, striated muscle
Lamprey dorsal roots are which type of nerve and what do they innervate?
somatic and visceral sensory, some visceral motor
(T/F) Although dorsal and ventral roots are joined in fish, visceral motor nerves only exit through the dorsal root.
False, they exit from both.
Sympathetic nerves are characterized by _____ preganglionic and ______ postganglionic nerves.
short, long
Parasympathetic nerves are characterized by _____ preganglionic and ______ postganglionic nerves.
long, short
1st order neurons release the neurotransmitter ________ and 2nd order neurons can release that or _________.
acetylcholine, adrenaline/epinephrine
The sympathetic nervous sytem stimulates the ________ response, while the parasympathetic stimulates the _______ response.
1) fight or flight
2) rest and repose
(T/F) Cyclostomes have a well-represented ANS.
False, it is fragmentary.
1) Internal and 2) external sensory receptors are called
interoreceptors, exteroceptors
What is the function of memory?
It allows organisms to adjust activity based on past experiences.
This is the connective tissue on the bottom of the spinal column.
phylum terminale
This is the term for the pinnate nerves at the end of the spinal column, after the the end of the spinal cord.
coda equina
The central nervous system originates as what?
two raised neural folds in the ectoderm
The 3 regions of the brain originate from the _______.
anterior neural tube
The embryological covering of the brain and spinal cord, the ____ splits into ___ layers im mammals.
meninx, 3
Amphibians, reptiles, and birds have two meninges, the outer _______ and the thin inner _______.
dura mater, secondary meninx
In mammals the secondary meninx divides into two layers, the ______ and ____ mater, both origininating from the ectomesoderm.
arachnoid, pia
The three areas of the developing brain, from anterior to posterior, are:
1) prosencephalon (forebrain)
2) mesencephalon (midbrain)
3) rhomboencephalon (hindbrain)
The prosencaphalon is divided into two areas, the ________ and ________, from anterior to posterior.
telencephalon, diencephalon
The telencephalon of the forebrain contains these structures:
olfactory bulbs, cerebral hemispheres
The diencephalon of the forebrain contains these structures:
optic vescicle, infundibulum, median eye complex, epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus
The mesencephalon of the brain contains these structures:
tectum (inferior and superior colliculi), tegmentum
What are some functions of the tegmentum?
motor output
awareness/attention
The rhombencephalon is divided into the __________ and the ______.
metencephalon, myelencephalon
The metencephalon of the hindbrain consists of which two sections?
cerebellum dorsally
rostral part of medulla ventrally (pons in birds and mammals)
The myelencephalon of the hindbrain contains which structure?
medulla oblongata
(T/F) Lateral ventricles are located in the midbrain.
False; they are located in the forebrain.
What are the general functions of the 1) pre- and 2) post-sensory gyrus
1) motor
2) sensory
Name the 12 cranial nerves, in order.
I - olfactory
II - optic
III - occulomotor
IV - trochlear
V - trigeminal
VI - abducens
VII - facial
VIII - auditory (vestibulocochlear)
IX - glossopharyngeal
X - vagus
XI - spinal accessory
XII - hypoglossal
The diencephalon's epithalamus, hypothalamus, ventral thalamus and dorsal thalamus, control which functions?
olfactory, sensory, biorythms, and homeostatic behavioral functions
The tectum of the midbrain collecs _____ info through the superior colliculi and ______ through the inferior colliculi.
visual, auditory
The medulla oblongata has many ______ functions and is a routing station for major nerve pathways.
reflex
(T/F) The cerebellum both initiates and coordinates motor functions.
False, it ONLY coordinates.
This is the most primitive sense, a ______ sensory type.
olfaction, chemical
Olfactory nerve cells have only one axon and dendrite, termed:
bipolar
________ is the technical term for taste.
gustation
Name the 4 basic human tastes.
bitter
salty
sour
sweet
(T/F) Some vertebrates have chemical sensors over their entire body.
True
Which cranial nerves are associated with vision?
II, III, IV, VI
The pigmented vascular _____ ____ nourishes the eye tissues.
choroid
This is the tough outer covering of the eye.
sclera
This type of eye is a photoreceptor but forms no image.
median (parietal) eye
The eyes begin as outpocketings of this structure.
diencephalon
The lens of the eye develops from which embryonic layer?
ectoderm
This area on the retina is also known as the blind spot.
optic disc
This retial region is a pit with high concentrations of receptor cells.
fovea
Name three pupil types.
1) circular
2) slit
3) horizontal (bar-shaped)
Aqueous humor from the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye is drained by the _______.
canal of Schlemm
This layer, located in the choroid, is reflective to allow more light to reach photoreceptive cells. It is responsible for the night glow of many animal's eyes.
tipium lucidum
Change in lens shape to focus is called:
accomodation
The basic cell of mechanoreception is the ______ organ. It also participates in electro-, thermo-, and chemo-reception
neuromast
Lateral line systems and cephalic canals contain what kind of cells?
neuromast
The three main parts of a neuromast organ are:
1) hair cells
2) sensory cells
3) supporting cells
In a neuromast cell, the threadlike ______ sticks up into the gel _______. At the base are _______.
kinocelium, cupula, stereocilia
The ________ is the structure responsible for translating soundwaves to neuron impulses in mammals.
organ of Corti
In the semicircular canals, fluid _______ flows over the neuromast cells to stimulate them.
endolymph
In some fish, _____ are crystals that lie on top of neuromast cells and move with body motion.
otoconia
In teleosts, the ______ _______ transfers and amplifies vibrations from the ear region to the swim bladder through fused vertebrae.
Weberian apparatus
The minor differnces in the external auditory canal of owls give them what?
stereoscopic hearing
A shark's electroreceptor network consists of many _________, innervated by CN __ and distributed by CN __.
Ampullae of Lorenzini, VIII, VII
The pit organs in vipers (boid snakes) function as ________.
thermoreceptors