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34 Cards in this Set

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b. synapses
Neurons communicate with other cells at junctions called ______.

a. neurotransmitters
b. synapses
c. autonomic nervous system
e. muscles, glands, and other neurons
Neurons form synapses with _______, ________, and ________ ________.

a. muscles
b. glands
c. neurons
d. glands, and other neurons
e. muscles, glands, and other neurons
a. somatic nervous system
Skeletal muscle is activated by neurons of the ______ ______ ________.

a. somatic nervous system
b. autonomic nervous system
b. autonomic nervous system
Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands receive signals from neurons of the _______ ________ _______.

a. somatic nervous system
b. autonomic nervous system
b. neuromuscular junction
A synapse between a somatic motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber is called a ________ ________.

a. neuroglandular junction
b. neuromuscular junction
b. contract
When an action potential arrives at a neuromuscular junction, it initiates a series of events which excite the underlying muscle fiber, causing it to ______.

a. secrete
b. contract
c. relax
b. two neuron chain
Signals in the autonomic nervous system travel over a ____ _____ _____ to their effector organ. The second neuron, or autonomic motor neuron, contacts the organ.

a. one neuron chain
b. two neuron chain
c. three neuron chain
a. increase
Signals from some autonomic motor neurons cause the heart rate to _________.

a. increase
b. decrease
c. stay constant
a. slow or stop
Signals from some neurons ________ or ________ cause the heart rate to contract.

a. slow or stop
b. increase or speed up
c. stay constant
a. contract, slow or stop
Signals from some autonomic motor neurons cause smooth muscle to ________. Signals from other neurons cause smooth muscle contractions to ______ or _______.

a. contract, slow or stop
b. relax, slow or stop
b. excite or inhibit it
potentials to smooth muscle may _____ or ________ ____.

a. activate or deactivate it
b. excite or inhibit it
b. secrete
Signals from the central nervous system can cause glands to _______.

a. stop secreting
b. secrete
a. effector organs
In addition to sending signals to _______ _______, neurons send signals to each other.

a. effector organs
b. various tissues
c. neurons
Neurons can excite or inhibit other _________.

a. glands
b. muscles
c. neurons
a. action potential
The neuron that synapses on the dendrites of this cell excites it and causes it to generate an ________ ___________.

a. action potential b. synaptic potential
a. action potential
The neuron synapsing on the soma inhibits the cell and prevents it from generating an _______ _________.

a. action potential
b. synaptic potential
b. dendrites, soma, or axon
In the brain, a variety of synapses have evolved to serve complex transmission needs between neurons. Synapses located between axon terminals of one neuron and ______, ______, or ______ of another are most common.

a. dendrites, dendrites, or axon
b. dendrites, soma, or axon
1. axodendritic
2. axosomatic
3. axoaxonic
What are the three types of synapses?
electrical
chemical
There are two major types of synapses, ________ and ________.
b. electrical synapse
Electrical synapses depolarize and generate action potentials simultaneously. When one neuron forms a gap junction with another neuron, an _________ _________ is made.

a. chemical synapse
b. electrical synapse
b. gap junction
Electrical current, in the form of ions, flows directly from one neuron to the other through the ______ _______.

a. tight junction
b. gap junction
b. excitatory
Electrical synapses are always __________.

a. inhibitory
b. excitatory
1. fast signal transmission btwn neurons
2. signal transmission to a group of electrically coupled neurons can synchronize their activity
Electrical synapses have two advantages. List these advantages.
a. synaptic cleft
At a chemical synapse, neuronal membranes are separated by a gap called the ______ _______.

a. synaptic cleft
b. presynaptic neuron
c. postsynaptic neuron
c. neurotransmitter
Electrical current cannot flow directly from one neuron to the other. A chemical, called a ____________, is released from the sending axon and carries the signal to the next neuron.

a. synapse
b. ion
c. neurotransmitter
a. electrical synapses, excitatory, inhibitory
Chemical synapses transmit signals more slowly than __________ ________ but the signal may be either ________ or __________, and the signal can be modified as it passes from one neuron to the next.

a. electrical synapses, excitatory, inhibitory
b. chemical synapses, excitatory, inhibitory
a. synapse, learning and memory
Chemical synapses are the most common type of ________, and they are associated with the most complex human behaviors, including __________ and ____________.

a. synapse, learning and memory
b. junction, learning and memory
1. axon terminal of 1 neuron
2. cell membrane of another nueron.
What are the two parts of a chemical synapse?
a. presynaptic neuron
The neuron conducting an action potential toward the synapse is called the ________ _______ .

a. presynaptic neuron
b. postsynaptic neuron
b. synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter
The axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron contains membranous sacs called _________ ________ which are filled with ______________.

a. axon terminal, synaptic vesicles
b. synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter
a. synaptic cleft
The gap separating the cells is called the ________ _______.

a. synaptic cleft
b. presynaptic neuron
c. postsynaptic neuron
b. neurotransmitter, synaptic cleft
An action potential that reaches the axon terminal causes synaptic vesicles, to fuse with it, releasing ____________ into the _________ _________.

a. acetyl choline, postsynaptic neuron
b. neurotransmitter, synaptic cleft
a. ion channels
The neuron receiving the signal is called the postsynaptic neuron. When activated, receptors on the postsynaptic neuron open ____ _________.

a. ion channels
b. voltage-gated receptors
c. passive channels
a. synaptic potential, Synaptic potential
The movement of ions across the neuronal membrane creates an electrical signal called a ________ __________. ___________ _________ vary in amplitude and travel only a short distance. Thus they are very different from action potentials.

a. synaptic potential, Synaptic potential
b. action potential, action potential