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20 Cards in this Set

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Active Transport
Movement of dissolved substances across a plasma membrane against the concentration gradient - requires energy.
ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
Compound that is the common source of chemical energy for cells.
Cellular respiration
Breakdown of glucose into simple inorganic compounds (water and CO2) with the release of energy.
Amino acids
Nitorgen containing compounds that are the building blocks of proteins
Anaerobic Respiration
Respiration that occurs without oxygen - produces lactic acid in human muscle cells
Anaphase
Stage of mitosis in which single stranded chromosomes move to opposite poles of the spindle fibre within a cell
Apoptosis
Natural death of cells - also called programmed cell death
Biogenesis
Accepted view that new cells are produced from pre-existing cells
Carbohydrates
Organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (eg. glucose, cellulose and starch)
Carbon dioxide
A gas released during respiration due to the breakdown of carbohydrates and used by plants during photosynthesis
catabolism
Energy releasing reactions in an organism that result in the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones.
Cell cycle
Time taken for a newly formed cell to mature and give rise to two new cells
Cell membrane
Partially permeable membrane that separates the cell contents from it's environment
Chloroplasts
Cell organelles in plants that contain photosynthetic pigments
(chlorophyll)
Chromatid
One of the strands of a double-stranded chromosome
Chromosomes
Thread-like structures composed of DNA and protein, visible in cells during mitosis and meiosis
Chromatin
Stained material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
Cytokinesis
Division of cytoplasm occurring after mitosis
Mitosis
Process of cell production in which two identical daughter cells are produced from each cell
Meiosis
Process of cell division that results in the process of four new cells, each containing half the number of chromosomes as the original cell (produces gametes)