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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychoanalytic Approach
i. Allow a positive regard for the analyst as a base for treatment
ii. Understand transference
iii. Unconscious conflict results in symptoms
iv. Develop a working alliance
v. Analyze the transference
vi. Explore conflicts that may be connected to symptoms
Adlerian Approach
i. Studies family constellations in terms of psychological position
ii. Do not recognize a causality, one-to-one relationship between family position and sibling traits
Analytical Approach
i. Dialogue between two people undertaken to facilitate growth, healing, and a new synthesis of the patient’s personality at a higher level of functioning
ii. Work through personal problems and gains greater understanding of one’s inner and outer worlds
iii. Offers pa on human psyche and encompasses conscious and unconscious elements
iv. Deals with mental and moral conflicts of normal people
Client Centered Approach
i. Believe in potential for human growth, and both believe that growth results from a relationship in which the therapist is experienced as warm and authentic
ii. Work with subjective awareness of patient
iii. Therapist tries to understand the client’s world in whatever way the client wishes to share it
REBT Approach
i. People are born w/a potential to be rational as well as irrational
ii. People’s tendency to irrational thinking, self-damaging habituations, wishful thinking, and intolerance is frequently exacerbated by their culture and family group
iii. Humans perceive, think, emote, and behave simultaneously
iv. Therapists do not believe in warm relationship between client and counselor
v. REBT uses role playing, assertion training, desensitization, humor, operant conditioning, suggestion, support
Behavior Approach
i. Attempt to move beyond idiosyncratic practices and to base clinical practice on secure scientific foundations
ii. Trial-and-error approach
Gestalt Approach
i. Potential for human growth, believe growth results from a relationship in which the therapist is experienced as warm and authentic
ii. Active phenomenological approach
iii. More inclined to think in terms of an encounter in which the subjectivity of both patient and therapist is valued
iv. Provides an alternative to confrontational approach and nondirective approach
v. Paid attention to what patient is thinking
vi. Does not pretend to know the truth about what is irrational – observes process, directions patient to observe his/her thoughts, and explores alternative ways of thinking
Cognitive Approach
i. Emphasizes role of information processing in human responses and adaptation
ii. Views personality as shaped by the interactions between innate disposition and environment
iii. Goal is to correct faulty information processing and to help patients modify assumptions that maintain maladaptive behaviors and emotions
iv. Fosters change in patients’ beliefs by treating beliefs as testable hypotheses to be examined through behavioral experiments
Existential Approach
i. Therapists begin w/presuppositions about the sources of a patient’s anguish and view the patient in human rather than behavioral or mechanistic terms
ii. Helps patient to embark on a course of self-investigation in which the goals are to understand the unconscious conflict, to identify the maladaptive defense mechanisms, to discover their destructive influence, to diminish secondary anxiety by correcting these heretofore restrictive modes of dealing w/self and others, and to develop other ways of coping
Interpersonal Approach
i. Demystifying depression
ii. Generating options for interpersonal communication and action
iii. Increasing mastery
iv. Realizing the antidepressant effect of healthy expression of anger
v. Clarifying expectations from individuals and roles
vi. Reducing social isolation
vii. Aims to improve symptoms and interpersonal functioning by improving the way distressed individuals relate to others
Repression
a. Person suppresses a powerful emotion.
b. Can help repudiate or disavow impulses and wishes which cause anxiety or conflict with one’s sense of morality
c. Defenses always involve an element of self-deception
d. Symptoms are explained by their relationship to the trauma
Countertransference
Way therapist is influenced by patients projections
Transference
Feelings the patient projects onto the therapist
Adler's Original Life Tasks
a. Work: provides sense of satisfaction and self-worth only if benefitting others
b. Friendship: expression of membership in human race and constant need to adapt
c. Love: derives from intimacy which is necessary for survival of species. Marriage represents our greatest challenge in ability to cooperate as humans.
d. Success in one promotes success in others
e. SOCIETY, WORK, SEX
i. Society – because no person can claim self-sufficiency we are all interdependent
Adler
a. Mistakes in meaning of life can be corrected only by reconsidering the situation in which the faulty interpretations were made
b. All behavior occurs in a social context
c. Cooperation is a biological necessity
d. Need to belong is fundamental to human nature
e. Holism more important than reductionism – person’s goal and style of life most important
f. Treatment – help individual reconstruct assumptions and goals in accord with greater social usefulness
g. Understand specific lifestyle
h. Helping patients understand themselves
i. Strengthening social interest
Psyche
i. Ego: personal awareness-consciousness
ii. Personal Unconscious: mental content not occupying current awareness due to disuse or inattention
iii. Collective unconscious: common to all; contents are universal
iv. **combination of spirit, soul, and idea; he viewed psychic reality as the sum of the conscious and unconscious processes
v. Influenced biochemical processes in the body, affects the instincts, and determines one’s perception of outer reality
vi. Physical matter can only be known by psychic images of outside reality
Shadow-Complex
i. Balances the ego in the personal unconscious
ii. Contains everything that could or should be part of the ego but that the ego denies or refuses to develop
iii. Contains both positive and negative aspects
iv. Appear in dreams in attacking or frightening forms of the same gender as the dreamer
v. Vehicle through which archetypal images of evil emerge out of collective unconscious
Archetypal
i. Universal images that present themselves as ideas or images when they become conscious
ii. Represent cumulative effect of perpetually repeated experiences on human nervous systems development
iii. Repetitive subjective emotional reaction to the event is impress on the human unconscious – react in similar way to repetitions of previous events
iv. **organizing principle, a system of readiness, and a dynamic nucleus of energy
Congruence
a. Describes accuracy between experience, communication and awareness
b. High congruence means that communication experience, and awareness are nearly all equal
Rogers - Patients
a. People define themselves by observing and evaluating their own experiences. An individual’s reality is a personal and private affair which can only be known through the person.
b. Great Optimism that people can change, even when they are deeply disturbed
c. Perception that individuals are often unnecessarily self-critical and that negative self-attitudes can become positive
d. Willingness to put forth great effort to try to help people, both through individual therapy and through professional therapy and nontechnical writing
e. Willingness to demonstrate their methods publicly
f. Respect for science and research
Rogers Basic Tendencies
a. Every individual exists in continually changing world of experience where he/she is center.
b. Organism reactions to field as it is perceived.
c. Organism reacts as an organized whole.
d. **Basic tendency to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism
e. Behavior is goal-directed attempt of organism to satisfy needs
f. Emotion accompanies and in general facilities such goal-directed behavior
g. Understand behavior by internal frame of reference
h. Perceptual field becomes differentiated as the self
Ellis
a. When a highly charged emotional consequence, C, follows a significant activating event, A, event A may seem to but does not actually cause C. consequences are largely created by B – individuals belief system.
Ellis Innate Nature
All humans are self-talking, self-evaluating, and self-construing
b. People are not exclusively the products of social learning
Irrational Beliefs
a. People can stand obnoxious adversities, even though they may never like them.
b. Adversities are hardly awful, because awful is an essentially indefinable term, with surplus meaning and little empirical referent.
c. By holding that the unfortunate happenigns in their lives absolutely should not exist, people really imply that they have godly power and that whatever they want not to exist must not.
d. By contending that they are worthless persons because they have not been able to ward off unfortunate events, people hold that they should be able to control the universe and that because they are not succeeding in doing what they cannot do they are obviously worthless.
REBT/Cognitive
a. Does not pretend to know the truth about what is irrational – observes process, directs the patient to observe his/her thoughts, and explores alternative ways of thinking in a manner that values and respects what the patient experiences and comes to believe ---different from REBT
REBT Success
individuals who have anger disorders, religious clients, and with school children
Waves
a. First wave focused on modifying overt behavior, second wave addressed cognitions, third wave addresses mindfulness and self-awareness and includes DBT and acceptance and commitment therapy.
Eysneck Personality Dimensions
a. Introverson/Extraversion – refers to characteristics usually associated w/the words
b. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability – ranging from moody and touchy to stable and even-tempered
c. *Genetically determined and introverts are more responsive to conditioning procedures
Social Learning Theory
a. Examination of the individual’s development history and his/her own idiosyncratic meanings and interpretations of events
b. A system that combines operant/conditional condition w/cognitive meditational processes to account for the development, maintenance, and modification of behavior
c. Vicarious learning (modeling), symbolic processes, and self-regulatory mechanisms
Classical Conditioning
a. A form of learning in which existing responses are attached to new stimuli by paring those stimuli w/those that naturally elicit the response
Positive Reinforcers
increase the frequency or a response followed by a favorable event
Negative Reinforcers
increase in behavior as result of avoiding or escaping an aversive event that one would have expected to occur
Punishment
aversive event is contingent on response; the result is a decrease in frequency of the response
Vicarious Learning
a. Modeling is consistent with its emphasis on cognitive processes
b. People acquire new knowledge and behavior by observing other people and events without engaging in the behavior and w/o any direct consequences
Self-Efficacy
a. Clients beliefs that they can cope with formerly feared situations
b. For efficacy to change the client must make a self-attribution of behavioral change
Systematic Desensitization
a. A step-by-step procedure for replacing anxiety w/relaxation while gradually increasing exposure to an anxiety-producing situation or object
Cognitive Distortion
Pervasive and systematic errors in reasoning
Personalization
a. Attribution of personal responsibility (or causal role or blame) for events over which a person has no control.
Existential Therapist - Conflict
a. Asks deep questions about the nature of the human being being depressed
b. Questions meaning, creativity, and love
Yalom Ultimate Concerns
a. Pathological, existential, and transpersonal
b. Death, freedom, isolation, and meaning
i. Freedom – psychological awareness
ii. Isolation – pertains to our aloneness in the universe
iii. Meaning – find some meaning, invent a purpose enough to support life
iv. Death – awareness of our inevitable demise
c. Choice, responsibility, mortality, and purpose of life
Interpersonal Depression
i. Grief
ii. Interpersonal disputes
iii. Role Transitions
iv. Interpersonal deficits
v. Depressongenic triggers become focus of ITP
vi. Focus on the recovery from the current depressive episode by clarifying the relationship between the onset of patient’s current depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems, and building interpersonal skills to resolve or manage more effectively these interpersonal problems.
Sick Role
i. They are suffering from a depression that does not let them function at an optimal level; tell them that they may temporarily need to lower expectations for what they can accomplish but need to do therapeutic work
ii. Giving them a name, allowing them to take on the role and instill hope about recovering in itself
1. Demystifies the patients symptoms by grouping them as part of a known syndrome
2. Excuses the patient from blame for the illness and what it makes them able to do or not do
3. Separates patients disorder from personality and identifies it as treatable
4. Gives patients permission to experiment w/interpersonal strategies
Worldview
ideas and beliefs, shaped by one's culture, that influence the way an individual interprets the world and interacts w/it
Re-Attribution Counseling
Test automatic thoughts and assumptions by considering alternative causes of events
b. Encourage reality testing and appropriate assignment of responsibility by requiring examination of all factors that impinge on a situation
Addressing Framework
a. Recognizes the interacting cultural influences on age, developmental and acquired disabilities, religion, ethnicity, ses, sexual orientation, indigenous heritage, national origin, and gender
Gestalt
a. Principles of “wholeness” in perception, learning and problem solving.
b. Developed organizing principles such as of closure and figure/ground.
Cognitive Model
a. Characterizes depression
b. Negative view of self, the world, and the future and perceives the self as inadequate, deserted, and worthless
c. Cognitions are organized in a hierarchy, each level differing from the next in its accessibility and stability
d. Emphasizes impact of cognitive deficits in psychopathology
Client Centered Perceptions
i. Trusts the person’s inner resources for growth and self realization, in spite of his/her impairments or environmental limitations
ii. Belief in the client’s inherent growth tendency and right to self-determination is expressed, in practice, through commitment to the nondirective attitude
iii. Client is unique person
4 Stages of Analytical Psychotherapy
1. Analysis of Transference
2. Active Imagination
3. Dream Analysis
4. Types of Dreams
Analysis of Transference
i. Transference projections onto the therapist mirror the personal history of the patient – relate to therapist
ii. Patients realize that the projection belong to themselves and not to others
Active Imagination
i. Help patients get in touch w/unconscious material – meditative imagery
ii. Clearing the mind and concentrating intensely, so inner images can be activated
iii. Allows for unconscious images to reveal themselves w/little conscious intervention
Dream Analysis
i. Accurate renderings of something to which one may need to pay attention and take as seriously as conscious event
ii. Represent wishes and fears, often express impulses
iii. Role a dream may play in relation to the patients conscious attitude
iv. What does the dream reveal about the patient’s own behavior and character
v. Unconscious and the dream are relied on far more than the therapists interpretation
Types of Dreams
i. Initial, recurrent, dreams w/shadow material, and dreams about the therapist
ii. Initial – path therapy may take and transference
iii. Recurrent – suggest problematic complexes and/or repressed traumatic event
iv. Patient shadow – dreams w/rage violence or immoral conduct
v. Therapist, setting, or therapy itself bring light to transference feelings of which patient is unaware/fearful
Freud Childhood Sexuality
a. Related to fixation – lingering investment in objects and activities from an earlier developmental period
b. Regression – reinvestment of psychic energy in an earlier period
c. Child has sexual instincts from the first moment – during development different parts of the body become energized w/sexual energy
d. First object of sexuality is mother’s breast
Oral
e. Gratification obtained through mouth
i. Teeth often signal the onset of oral aggressiveness
ii. Mouth is first area child can control
Anal
f. Anal – not controlling becomes means of gaining negative attention, rise of physiological control becomes a source of pleasure and also results in parental approval
i. 18 months to 3 years – libidinal pleasure is derived from retaining and expelling feces
Phallic
g. Phallic – child develops fantasies w/parents, master competitive urges, acquire appropriate behaviors/identity
Latency
h. Latency – child forms relationships w/people outside immediate family, develops moral conscience, superego becomes solidified
Genital
develop mature relationships, blended w/intimacy
i. Heterosexual relations are achieved – basis for a mature personality
Here and Now
Therapists use own feelings as a barometer of what is happening.
Maintain focus on what is transpiring in therapeutic relationship.