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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define sterile
free of any life form or process
define disinfection
frees from infection, kills bacteria/inactivates viruses but does not necessarily kill bacterial spores
define antiseptic
opposes growth or action of microorgs, used in reference to a substance utilized on a body surface or wound
define sanitize
using an agent that reduces microbisl contaminants to safe levels as determined by public health requirements
what is the most effective and practical sterilization method and its drawbacks?
moist heat (autoclave). it does not work on heat labile things and it does not work on closed containers
what type of sterilization takes longer than autoclaving but does no dull sharp edges and it can permeate closed containers.
dry heat sterilization
what is used to sterilize microbes in the air?
UV radiation
ionizing radiation would be a great way to sterilize objects except that...
it is not practical except in facilities that can contain ionizing radiation
what method of sterilization is used for solutions that are heat labile or whose efficacy/safety is compromised by the introduction of chemicals or heat? what is its drawback?
filtration. the pores may not be small enough to get some viruses
sterilizing via chemicals acts on microbes in what ways?
either oxidating the cell, denaturing the proteins, inactivating vital enzymes by alkylation, modifying the permeability of the cell, or disrupting the cell.
hydrogen peroxide is a sterilization agent that kills by
oxidizing via free radicals
chlorine dioxide is a sterilization agent that kills by...
oxidizing, it is a gas, used in buildings where anthrax has been released
ethylene oxide is a sterilization agen that acts by...
alkylating. it is a gas and it is very toxic so its use has been curtailed
how does the sterilizing agent peracetic acid kill?
it is an oxidizing liquid that is fast and used on heat sensitive instruments, but these instruments must be used quickly
the most practical method of evaluating sterilization is by...
the number of spores left after sterilizing
critical items are what? semi critical?
anything that enters tissue or blood. items that come into contact with mucous membrane (do not need to be completely sterilized of spores but need to be free of bacs or viruses)
what is a non critical item?
comes in contact with skin and only needs low or medium disinfection
what is the difference between high level disinfectants and sterilizers and what are some examples of high levels?
they each can kill spores usually, sometimes its just small concentration differences or how long the agent will work. glutaraldehyde (alkylator), peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide, H2O2.
describe intermediate disinfectants and name a few.
either weakly or non sporicidal. Na hypochlorite (bleach, higher the concentration the more it can disinfect - can actually kill spores at high levels) and iodophor compounds
describe low level disinfectants and name a few.
non sporicidal and do not inactivate all bacs/viruses. quarternary amine compounds (denature cell membrane and some are used as antiseptic)
how many nosocomial infections occur per year in the US? what are the most common G+ infections? G-? spore formers?
2 mil. Staph aureus then Enterococcus faecalis and faecium. E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clostridium difficile.
describe the antiseptic chlorhexidine
it is a surgical scub that disrupts the membranes/lipids. it actively persists after drying but it has poor killing activity against some enterococcus and stphylococcus species
describe the antiseptic triclosan.
most common in antibacterial soaps... bacs may becoming resistant to it.
what is the best choice for routine hand antiseptic?
ethyl alcohol gels... kil most bacs not viruses though.
the best hand antiseptic in surgery is?
chlorhexadine for continued activity and alcohol rub for fast killing capability