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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sociology
The scientific study of society, relationships between people, and free will.
Social Determinism
People as Social Actors
Patterns of Social Life
Social Constructs
Sociological Imagination
Relationship between experiences and the larger society, how people are aware of these relationships, and relate them to public issues.
Social Locaters
Bestow status upon a person
Sex, Race, Ethnicity, class, economic standing, age, ability/disability, sexual orientation
Auguste Compte
-Coined the phrase Sociology
-Sociologists are the "High Priests" of Society
-"founder" of sociology
-Scientific Method
-positivism
Positivism
Knowledge from facts.
Herbert Spencer
-opposed social reform
-tampering with society could be harmful
-survival of the fit
Social Darwinism
Survival of the fit, society as interrelated, society promotes its own good/welfare.
Karl Marx
milieu-Rebellious, radical, anti-religious
-Critical of German Government and Society
-alienated himself from German Society
-moved to Paris, France
-Bourgeoisie Vs Proletaiat
-economic Determinism
Milieu
Social Environment
Economic Determinism
-nature of society is based on economy
-economy determines its legal, religous, artistic and political structure.
Emile Durkheim
-Sociology recognized
-Studied how Social Forces affect Behavior
-Identified Social Integration
Social Integration
Degree to which people are tied to a social group
Max Weber
Religion and the origin of Capitalism
Religion is the Central force in social change
Social Institutions
Religion, Education, Family, Government, Medicine, Technology
Manifest Function
-intended
-recognized
-open and stated
Latent Function
-unintended
-unrecognized
-covert and hidden
-may reflect a hidden purpose
Functionalist Perspective
-majority in society share common set of values and beliefs
-Society is in interrelated parts
-Conflict is seen as a problem
Conflict Perspective
-Society in a continuing struggle
-power struggle
-scarce resources
-competition and conflict
-conflict doesnt need to be violent
Feminist Approach to the Conflict Perspective
-importance of gender as an element of social structure
-focuses attention to women's experiences
Neo-Marxist approach to the conflict perspective
-class struggle is inevitable
-conflict is a result of social change
-focuses on racial-ethnic inequalities
-exploitation of one social group
Interactionist Perspective
-Day to Day interactions
-imediate social environment
-behavior is learned
Definition of the Situation
If you define a situation as real, you may act as if it was real and therefore it may become real.
Levels of Analysis
Macro Level-Large Scale
Micro Level- Social
Public uses of sociology
-general enlightenment
-challenging popular myths
-identifying social problems
-designing solutions
Qualitative Vs Quantitative
Qualitative-descriptions
Quantitative-numbers
Process of Scientific Method
1.Select a topic
2. Define the problem
3. Review the Literature
4. Formulating a Hypothesis
5. Create a design
6. Collect Data
7. Interpret data
8. Publish Findings
Issues in Research Methods
-objectivity
-people generalize
-validity
-reliability
Correlation
Associating a change in one variable and a change in the value of another.
Types of Research Methods
-observation( Field, nonparticipant, participant)
-Hawthorne Effect
Secondary Analysis
use of existing data
Culture
The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior
-design for living, shared set of values, beliefs and behaviors
-sense of identity
Material Culture
Tangible Human Creations
-reflect values of a society
Nonmaterial Culture
-ideas created by members of a society.
-intangible
Culture Teaches...
What is right/wrong, What is proper behavior, communication, ways of thinking
Sopir-Whorf Thesis
People know the world only in terms of their own language
Sociological Perspective
ways of examining the same phenomena
-each perspective/model uses a different theory
-each provides a framework in which observations may be logically ordered.
Interactionist Perspective
-Day to Day interactions
-Ones immediate social environment
-behavior is learned
-cultural capital
Ethnocentrism
-the tendency to evaluate other cultures in terms of one's own and to conclude that the other cultures are inferior
Cultural Relativism
-Practice of judging a culture in terms of how well it helps the members meet their survival needs
Subculture
A group within a society's dominant culture that shares some of its elements, but at the same time differentiates itself from the dominant culture
Counter Culture
-group within a society that develops in opposition to the dominant culture.
Sources of cultural change
-alteration in cultural environment
-contact with groups of different cultures
-discovery
-invention
-diffusion
Cultural Lag
A lag or delay between a change in technology or physical conditions and the adjustment in norms and values of a society
Socialization
-learning to be human
-we acquire our humanities through interaction with others
-process by with society's culture is taught and learned
Nature Vs Nurture
nature- personality traits and temperaments are a result of genetics.
Nurture-personality formed as a result of social environment
Charles Horton Cooley
-we learn who we are by interacting with others
-looking glass self
Looking glass self
-individuals look at themselves in the way they assume others see them.
George Herbert Mead
-Stages of Socialization
-I and the Me
-sense of self emerges through social interaction
I and the Me
I- spontaneous and free
Me-Formed by society
Freud
Id-Unsocialized self
Superego-Conscience
Ego-Conscious self
Kohlberg
Moral Development-1. preconventional 2.conventional
3.post conventional
Anticipatory Socialization
-process where a person rehearses for future occupations, positions, and relationships.
Resocialization
Assume a new status based on our choice
Total Institutions
degradation ceremony