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153 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the practice of placing students in specific curriculm groups on the basis of thier test scores and other criteria
teacher-expectancy effect
the impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual achievements
the process through which religion's influence on other social institutions diminishes
a relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original vision of faith
elements beyond everyday life that inpsire awe, respect, and even fear
religious ritual
a practice required or expected of members of a faith
religious experience
the feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion
religious belief
a statement to which members of a particular religion adhere
a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
protestant ethic
Max Weber's term for the discplined work ethic, this worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers
the ordinary and commonplace elements of life, as distinguished from the sacred
new religious movement (nrm) or cult
a small, secretive religious group that represents either a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith
liberation theology
use of a church, primariily Roman Catholicism, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society
hidden curriculum
standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools
established sect
a religious group that is the outgrowth of a sect, yet remains isolated from society
a formal process of learning in which some people consciously teach while others adopt the social role of learner
a religious organization that claims to include most or all members of a society, and is recognized as the national or official religion
a large, organized religion that claims to include most or all members of a society, and is recognized as the national or offical religion
cultural universal
a common practice or belief found in every culture
an increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field
a literal interpretation of the Bible regarding the creation of humanity and the universe, used to argue that evolution should not be presented as established scientific fact
correspondence principle
the tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class an dto prepare students for the type of job typically held by members of their class
single-parent family
a family in which only one parent is present to care for the children
serial monogomy
a form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetiem, but only one spouse at a time
a form of polygamy in which a man may have more than one wife at the same time
a form of marriage in which an individual may have several husbands or wives simultaneously
a form of polygamy in which a woman may have more than one husband at the same time
patrilineal descent
a kinship system in which only the relatives of the father are significant
a society in which men dominate in family decision making
nuclear family
a married couple and thier unmarried children living together
a form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other
matrilineal descent
a kinship system in which only the relatives of the mother are significant
a society in which womeen dominate in family decision making
a sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one's maleness
the state of being related to others
incest taboo
the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives
a set of people related by blood, marriage or some other agreed-upon relationship, or adoption, who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society
pride in the extended family, expressed through the maintenance of close ties and strong obligations to kinfolk outside the immediate family
extended family
a family in which relatives live in the same home as parents and thier children
the requirement that people select a mate outside certain groups
the restriction of mate selection to people within the same group
egalitarian family
an authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals
domestic partnership
2 unrelated adults who share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities
the practice of living together as a male-female couple without marrying
bilateral descent
a kinship system in which both sides of a person's family are regarded as equally important
in a legal sense, a process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, reponsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents
sexual harrassment
behavior that occurs when owrk benefits are made contigent on sexual favors, or when touching, lewd comments, or the exhibition of pornographic material creates a "hostile environment"
the ideology that one sex is superior to the other
second shift
the double burden that many women face and few men share equitably
an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions
fear of and prejudice against homosexuality
glass ceiling
an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity
the scientific study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the aged
gender role
expectations regarding the proper behaivior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family
disengagement theory
a functionalist theory of aging that implicitly suggests that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationship
prejudice and discrimination based on a person's age
activity theory
an interactionalist theory of aging that suggests that elderly people who remain active and socially involved will be best-adjusted
symbolic ethnicity
an ethnic identity that empasizes concerns such as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage
an unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group
the physical seperation of 2 groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events; often imposed on a minority group or by a dominant group
the belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior
racial profiling
any arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior
racial group
a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences
a negaitive attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority
mutual respect for one another's cultures among the various groups in a society, which allows minorities to express their own cultures without experiencing prejudice
children born in the US to the Issei
model / ideal minority
a minority group that despite past prejudice and discrimination, succeeds economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to confrontation with Whites
minority group
a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control of power over thier own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs
Japanese immigrants to the US
Institutional discrimination
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation
explotation theory
a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
ethnic group
a group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons
contact hypothesis
an interactionist perspective which states that in cooperative circumstances, interracial contact between people of equal statu will reduce prejudice
black power
a political philosophy promoted by many younger Blacks in the 1960s that supported the creation of Black- controlled political and economic institutions
the process through which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradtition to become part of a different culture
a former policy of the South African government, designed to maintain the seperation of Blacks and other non-Whites from the dominant Whites
anti-Jewish prejudice
the process through which a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group
affirmative action
positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
world systems analysis
a view of the global economic system as one divided between certain indutrialized nations that control wealthh and developing countires that are controlled and exploited
an inclusive term encompassing all a person's material asserts, including land, stocks, and other typles of properties
vertical mobility
the movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank
the long-term poor who lack training and skills
a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
status group
people who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions
social mobility
movement in individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
social inequality
a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige or power
a system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people
the monies that immigrants return to their families of origion. also called migradollars
relative poverty
a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever thier lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole
Karl Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society
the respect and admiration thah tan occupation holds in a society
the ability to exercise one's will over others
open system
a social system in which the position of each individual is influcenced by his or her achieved status
objective method
a technique for measuring social class that assigns individuals to classes on the basis of criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence
continuing dependence of former colonies on foriegn countries
multinational corporation
a commercial organization that is headquartered in one country but does business throughout the world
life chances
the opportunities people have to provide themselves with matieral goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
intragenerational mobility
changes in social position within a person's adult life
intergenerational mobility
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
salaries and wages
horizontal mobility
the movement of an individual form one social position to another of the same rank
the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and theh exchange of ideas
false consciousness
a term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
estate system
a system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange of military protection and other services
dominant ideology
a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
dependency theory
an approach to stratificaion that contends that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain
corporate welfare
tax breaks, direct payments, and grants that the government makes to corporations
the maintenance of political, social , economic, and cultural dominance over a people by foreign power for an extended period
closed system
a social ranking based primarliy on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
class consciousness
in Karl Marx's view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change
a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income
a herditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity in the accumulation of profits
Karl Marx's term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production
the area of common culture along the border between Mexico and the US
ascribed status
a social position assigned to a person by socity without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics
achieved status
a social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
absolute poverty
a minimum level of subsistence that no fmaily should be expected to live below
white-collar crime
illegal acts committed by affluent, "respectabel" individuals in the course of business activities
victimless crime
a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
victimization survey
a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victimes of crime
a label used to devalue members of certain social groups
societal-reaction approach
another name for labeling theory
social control
the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
social contructionalist perspective
an approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the deviant identity
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
routine activities theory
the notion that criminal victimization increases when motivated offenders and suitable targets converge
professional criminal
a perosn who pursus crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals
organized crime
the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal smuggling and sale of illegal drugs
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchial structure
governmental social control
labeling theory
an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while other engaged in the same behavior are not
informal social control
social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule
formal social control
social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employees
differential assoiciation
a theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
cultural transmission
a school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authroity applies formal penalties
control theory
a view of confomity and deviance that suggests that our connection to memebers of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms
going along with peers
anomie theory of deviance
Robert Merton's theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both
Durkheim's term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
survelliance function
the collection and distribution of information concerning events in the social environment
opinion leader
somone who influences the opions and decision of other through day-to-day personal contacts and communication
narcotizing dysfunction
the phenonmenon in which the media provide such massive amounts of information that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on the information
mass media
print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences
mass media
print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences