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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scientific study of people and their interactions with each other.
Sociological Imagination
Being able to place personal experience in a broader environment.
Suicide according to Durkheim
decreases with level of social integration (married, military, employed, old, with kids, during war ---> less likely to commit
Social Structure
Stable pattern of behavior; permanent component of one's environment; ie. religion, govt., family, education
Macro vs. Micro
Macro -social structure affects people's lives

Micro - individual interaction affects social structure
Structural / Functionalist Theory (Macro)
-based on positivism
-Key ideas: society is a complex system of parts that function together to maintain stability and solidarity; no judgement; need people to buy in to it; socialization

Criticisms: if something serves no function in society, it will dwindle out; stability not always good; ignores inequality & conflict
Manifest and Latent Functions
Manifest - stated functions

Latent - secondary; a by-product
Disrupt stability
Social Conflict Theory (Macro)
Key ideas: tension between groups over scarce resources (money, power, status, degrees); unequal distribution; sometimes unfair; powerful make rules to benefit themselves; different access / opportunity

Criticisms: biased; acting toward social change; ignored shared values and beliefs
Symbolic Interaction Theory (Micro)
-Society as a product of everyday actions

Key Ideas: symbols have shared meaning; shape our view of the world

Criticisms: Ignores cultural differences; ignores influences of social structure
The process by which humans learn to develop their human potential and lean cultural patterns; ongoing process
Sigmund Freud
Self is comprised of Id (basic human needs), Ego (effort to balance pleasure seeking with societal interests; self image) and Super-ego (internalization of norms, values, etc. but culture specific)
-learned; not inherent
-Pavlov (dogs) and Skinner (operant conditioning) said it's based on trial and error
"Looking-glass self"
Charles Cooley said: who we are is shaped by others reactions to us
Mead - Development of self
1) Pre-play / imitation

2) Play - self begins to emerge; based on significant others

3) Game - take on multiple roles

4) Generalized Other - expectations of society are taken into account; marks the end of primary socialization (adolesence)
Primary vs. Secondary Socialization
Primary - family, early age, emotional base, language, norms, etc., lasts forever

Secondary - peers, school, weaker, relearn throughout life
Agents of Socialization
1) Family - basic skills, given social position

2) Education - values, norms of society; "hidden curriculum"

3) Peer Groups

4) Mass Media
Radical change of personality by discarding and replacing everything learned previously; need total institution to acheive
Total Institution
Ex.) Prison or military

- Isolated from society
-activities conducted in groups
-aspects of life designed for the organization's purpose
-breaks down the individual's identity and reforms a new identity
Role Conflict
conflict in roles between 2 or more statuses

ex.) male pre-school teachers
Role Strain
conflict in roles from one status

ex.) Role of a researcher (If Hitler asked...)
Expected behavior of a particular status
Socially defined position

Ascribed - given by society; may change over time; gender, race

Achieved - attained by your own doing

Master - defines your general status/position
Dramaturgical analysis
-impression management
-social context is important
Impression Management
The process through which people try to control the impressions other people form of them
Thomas theorem
"If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."
2 or more people who identify and interact with one another and share norms, etc.
Free-rider Problem
Free riders are actors who consume more than their fair share of a resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. The free rider problem is the question of how to prevent free riding from taking place
Members of the group avoid promoting viewpoints outside the comfort zone of consensus thinking.
Social Control
Techniques to regulate behavior; to prevent deviant behavior; for obedience and conformity
Violation of social norms
Strain Theory - Merton (5 types of people)
1)Conformist - does what they're supposed to do

2) Innovator - finds a way to reach the goals because they don't have the means

3) Ritualist - hates goals, but goes through life monotonously

4) Retreatist - Detached from society

5)Rebels - completely reshape it all (ie. meditation for peace)
Differential Association Theory - Sutherland
People's tendency toward deviancy is dependent on the amount of contact/interaction woth others who reject conventional behavior

Problem: Most people don't become deviant; also, chicken and the egg theory
Control Theory - Hershey
People more attached to society have a decreased chance of being devant
Labeling Theory
Act of deviance is not important, just the reaction of society that matters; has stages of deviance (if, then)
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
a prediction that, being made, actually becomes true
* the phenomenon whereby an individual with an attribute, which is deeply discredited by his/her society, is rejected as a result of the attribute
Social Stratification
structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
Social inequality
the expression of lack of access to housing, health care, eduction, employment opportunities, and status. It is the exclusion of people from full and equal participation in what we, the members of society, perceive as being valuable, important personally worthwhile and socially desirable
4 types of Stratification Systems
1) Slavery - one group owns the other

2) Caste - based on heredity; fixed and immobile

3) Feudal - (state) landowners own land and allow peasants to work on it for protection

4) Class - ranking based on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence mobility
Davis - Moore (Functionalists) Thesis
The greater the functional importance of some things, the more rewards attached to that position; meritocracy; not equal
Marx vs. Weber (Conflict theorists)
Marx - Stratification system doesn't benefit everyone and harms some; meritocracy is "blaming the victim"; creates a false consciousness

Weber - 3 components of Startification; 1) Class, 2) Status/Prestige, 3) Power
False consciousness (Marx)
Marxist thesis that material and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead the proletariat — and other classes — about the real relations of forces between those classes and of the actual states of affairs with respect to the development of various elements of pre-socialist society relative to the secular development of human society in general.
Class Consciousness
referring to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests, or measuring the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class (or class allegiance) sets for them.
Social Mobility
Horizontal - movement within groups; most common

Vertical - Movement between classes; 2 types - 1)Intragenerational - occurs in your lifetime, 2) Intergenerational - occurs throughout generations

Structural Mobility - Vertical mobility is more likely depending on structure
Absolute vs.. Relative Ppoverty
Absolute - not having enough to survive

Relative - being poor by comparison
Poverty Line
equals three times the cost of food
Feminization of poverty
-increase in single motherhood
-gender discrimination in labor force (pink collar jobs differ in pay)
Culture of Poverty
Based on the concept that the poor have a unique value system, the culture of poverty theory suggests the poor remain in poverty because of their adaptations to the burdens of poverty.
Functions of Poverty
-do the dirty work
-benefit the affluent
-creates jobs for those who service the poor
-protect the economic usefulness of items unwated by others
-make examples out of
-reinforce the status of the non-poor
Blame the victim
holding the victims of a crime or an accident to be in whole or in part responsible for what has happened to them. Ex.) blaming a hungry man for stealing
a socially constructed category of people who share certain traits (usually biological) that society deems important
a category of people whose cultural heritage is defined as socially significant
Minority Group
-subject to disadvantages in society
-not necessarily a numerical minority
-experience unequal treatment
Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that doesn't recognize individual differences within the group
negative attitude
Individual Discrimination
one on one (overt is illegal)
Institutional Discrimination
built into the social system; unintentional; Written or by appearance
negative attitudes about a particular race
Ways to deal with Diversity
1) Extermination

2) Amalgamation (melting pot; A+B=C

3) Assimilation A+B+C=A

4) Pluralism A+B+C=A+B+C

5) Avoidance - segregation, sometimes benefits the minority group
Contact Theory
The more diverse people in your class you meet, the more you accept diversity and understand cultures.
Model Minority
stereotype that shows how minorities should progress ie.) Asian Americans
Surveillance Function
-They choose what we see/know
-Functionalist says this is efficient because we can’t know everything
-Conflict Theorists say this is gatekeeping; info they want us to see only (their dominant ideaology)
Narcotizing Dysfunction
desensitizing effect
info they want us to see only (their dominant ideaology)
Dominant Ideaology
The beliefs of the dominant group
target of blame regardless of actual fault
Functions of Education
-Child care/Pre-school; latent
-Social control / Obedience
-Social placement
-Social Integration
-Knowledge / Training
-Stability in labor market
Inequality of Education
- more than just self-motivation

-Non-Asian minorities underperform
-Bias of standardized tests
-Tracking (AP track, college prep track, Technical track)
-hidden curriculum
Hidden Curriculum
what’s really taught is values, behaviors and culture deemed acceptable by society
Increasingly need more and more to get a good job
Grade Inflation
people are getting higher grades now

1969 – more C+’s then A’s

2003 – A’s win 9:1
A unified system of beliefs/practices related to sacred things
Sacred vs. Profane
Sacred - Elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, fear, etc.; Assumes people have faith

Profane – ordinary elements of everyday life; everything not sacred (i.e. desk)
Symbols ie. star of David, Cross
A way for collective groups to elevate the sacred
Monotheism vs. Polytheism
Mono- believe in one God

Poly - Believe in multiple gods
Large, organized religion no affiliated with the state
established state churches
Relatively small religions that break away from a larger denomination; usually short-lived
A small, usually secretive group that represents either a brand new religion or a dramatically different take on an existing religion
The process of transformation by which a society migrates from close identification with religious institutions to a more separated relationship.
Protestant Work Ethic (Weber)
-Helped the industrial revolution, had to earn money, but couldn’t flaunt it
Functions of Religion
Can help promote social change
Marx's view of religion (Conflict)
Opiate of the masses
-Keeps the powerful in power
-passifies people b/c they’re living for the next life
Institutionalized competitive activity
Having too much body fat
Global Stratification
Differences throughout the world
-High Income
-Upper Middle Income
Lower Middle income
-Low Income
Colonialism and neocolonialism
Colonialism - nations taking over other nations

Neo-colonialism – Multi-national Global Corporations
Modernization Theory
o Technological / cultural differences
Different Stages lead to money in the culture

1) Traditional

2) Takeoff* (Key stage)
-People make more than they need
-Surplus profit

3) Technological Maturity
-Growth is accepted
-Higher living standards sought
-Poverty reduced Education increased…etc.

4) High Mass Consumption
-To the extreme
-People start to feel they need things (Ipod, cell phone, etc.
Dependency Theory
Poor and rich countries dependent on each other

Classifies the world into 3 types of countries

1)Core (Wealthy)
-Dependent on a small number of exports for sustaining the country (Ex. Oil)

2) Periphery (Poor)
-Get exploited by Wealthy countries

-have some limited industry; a bit more self-sufficient
-Increased efficiency
-Ease, less cost, saves time, make more money
-High turnover / decreased loyalty
-Increased bureaucracy
Lifestyle/Cultural Enclaves
An important outgrowth of the sectoral organization of American life as resulting from emergence of industrialization

Cultural Enclave – chat rooms
Social Change
hange in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures
Social Movements
A sustained attempt by collective actors to bring about rapid change
Relative Deprivation Theory
A movement when people perceive a gap between what their life is like and what they believe it should be
Resource Mobilization Theory
Resources are key, must have money, committed people, media support, govt. support / authority, (the more widespread the matter, the more it is legitimized) So more likely to be successful in times of prosperity (people have more expendable income)
Mass Society Theory
industrialization leads to impersonal social structures which leads to social movements to re-establish community
Relatively permanent group related by blood, marriage, or adoption that live together and share responsibility offspring children
Monogamy vs. polygamy
Mono - one partner

Poly - multiple partners
Types of kinship
-Bilateral – both mom and dad
-Patrilineal – Dad
-Matrilineal – Mom
Patriarchy vs. Matriarchy
Patriarchy – Dad
Matriarchy – Mom
Egalitarian – Both
Family Change over time
-Family Functions reduced
-Individualism / Sexual / Cultural Revolutions
Functions of Family
-Emotional Support/Financial/ Belonging
-Regulation of Sexual Behavior
-Social status
"Traditional Family"
extended, arranged courtship, polygamy common, patrilineal and patriarchical
Hawthorne Effect
people’s behavior and performance change following any new or increased attention
The consistency of your measurement, or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects. In short, it is the repeatability of your measurement
the strength of our conclusions, inferences or propositions (4 types)
1. Conclusion validity - is there a relationship between the program and the observed outcome?

2. Internal Validity - is there is a relationship between the program and the outcome we saw, is it a causal relationship?

3. Construct validity - is there is there a relationship between how I operationalized my concepts in this study to the actual causal relationship I'm trying to study? Overall, we are trying to generalize our conceptualized treatment and outcomes to broader constructs of the same concepts.

4. External validity - our ability to generalize the results of our study to other settings.
anomolous relationship
Cause and effect relationship
Spurious relationship
A mathematical relationship in which two occurrences have no causal connection, yet it may be inferred that they do, due to a certain third, unseen factor (referred to as a "confounding factor" or "lurking variable"). The spurious relationship gives an impression of a worthy link between two groups that is invalid when objectively examined.
Types of research Design
Surveys, Participant Observations and experiments
Gender and gender roles
Personality traits, behavior patterns attached to male and female with social construction

expectations that depend on the setting
Glass Ceiling
Subtle discrimination that prevents certain individuals from reaching high-ranking positions
Benefits of Marriage
-civilizing effect
-social support
School Tracking
Increased status of jobs; people who graduated earn more money