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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
accomodation
The process in which a smaller society is able to preserve their culture after contact with a larger culture.
acculturation
The process in which members of a civilization incorporate norms and valves form other cultures into their own.
age cohort
A set of people about the same age passing through life together.
age grade
A set of statuses and roles based on age.
ageism
Prejudice based on age.
alienation
The feeling of being powerless to control one's own destiny.
animism
A form of religion in which all forms of life and all aspects of the Earth are inhabited by god or supernatural powers.
anomie
A state of normlessness.
anticipatory socialization
Prepares a person for a role he or she will mostlikely take in life.
ascribed status
A position that is assigned to a person at birth and cannot be changed.
assimilation
When a minority group is absorbed into the majority population and evenually dissapears as a distinct group.
authority
Power that is considered legitimate by those who exercise it and by those affected by it.
behavorism
A theory stating that behavior is learned and that learing occurs thru conditioning.
bureaucracy
A formal organizzation that has a clearly defined hierarchy with commited rules, efficency, and impersonality.
capitalism
A system for organizing the production of goods ans services based on markets, private properity, and the businessfirm or company.
civilization
A cultural complex formed by the identical major cultural features of a number of societies.
class
A social stratum that is defined primarily by economic criteria such as income, occupation and wealth.
closed society
A society in which social mobiltiy does not exist.
closed stratification
A systen in which there are rigid boundaries between social strata.
community
A set of primary and secondary groups in which the individuals carry out important life functions.
conflict theory
A sociological perspective that emphasizes the role of conflict and power in society.
couterculture
A subculture that challenges the accepted norms and values of the larger society and establishes an alternative lifestyle.
cultural evolution
The process by which successful cultural adaptions are passed down from one generation to the next.
cultural lag
The time it takes of the adapttion to take place.
cultural relativity
The recognition that all cultures develop their own ways in dealing with specific demands of their environment.
culture
The modes of thought, behavior, and production that are handed down by communicative interaction rather than genetic transmission.
de facto segregation
Segregation maintained by unwritten norms.
de jure segregation
Created by formal legel sanctions that prohibit certain group to interact with others or place limits on such interactions.
deference
The respect and esteem shown to an individual.
demagogue
A leader that uses charisma and political symbols to manipulate the public opinion.
democracy
A policical system in which all citizens have the right to participate in public decision making.
deviance
Behavior that violated the norms of a society.
differential association
A theory that explains deviance as a learned behavior by others that participate in such behavior.
discrimination
Behavior that treat people unfairly on the basis of their group membership.
dyad
A group consisting of two people.
ego
The part of the human personality that is the person's conception of himself or herself in relation to others.
endogamy
Marrying within one's cultural group.
ethnic group
a population that has a sense of group indentity based on shared ancestry and distinctive cultural patterns.
ethnic (racial) nationalism
The belief that one's own ethnic group constitutes a distinct people whose culture is and should be separated from a larger society.
ethnic stratification
The ranking of ethnic groups in a social hierarchy on the basis of each group's similarity to the dominant group.
ethnocentrism
The tendency to judge other cultures as inferior to one's own.
ethnomethodology
The study of underlying rules of behavior that guide group interaction.
exogamy
Marrying outside of one;s culture.
extended family
An individuals nuclear family plus the nuclear family of his or her blood relatives.
family of orientaion
The nuclear family in which a person is born and raised.
family of procreation
The nuclear family in which a person forms thru marriage or cohabitation.
feral child
a child reared outside human society.
formal organization
a group that has explicit set of norms, statuses, and roles that specify each memeber relationship to the others.
frequency distribution
a classification of data that describes how many observations fall with in each category of a variable.
functionalism
A socialogical perspective that focuses on the ways in which complex pattern of social structures and arrangements contributes to social order.
gemeinschaft
Close personal relaionships in small communities.
gender role
A set of behaviors considered appropritefor an individual of a particular gender.
gender socialization
The ways in which we learn our gender identity according to cultural norms of masculinity and femininity.
generalized other
A person's internalized conception of the expectations and attitudes held by society.
genocide
The intentional extermination of one population by a more dominant population.
gerontology
The study of aging and older people.
gesellschaft
A term used to refer to the well-organized but impersonal relationships among the members of modern societies.
Hawthorne effect
The unintended effect that results from the attention given to subjects in an experimental situation.
homogamy
The tendency to marry a person who is similar to oneself in social background.
horticultural society
A society whose primary means of subsistence is raising crops, which plants and cultivates, often developing an extensive system for watering the crops.
human ecology
A sociological perspective that emphasizes the relationships among social order, social disorganization, and the distribution of populations in time and space.
id
The part of the human personality from which all innate drive arise.
identification
The social process whereby an individual chooses role models and attempts to imitate their behavior.
ideologies
Systems of values and norms that the members of a society are expected to live in and act without qeuestion.
in-group
The social group to which an individual has a feeling of allegiance.
interactionism
A sociological perspective that views social order and social change as resulting from all the repeated interactions among individuals and groups.
interest group
An organization that attempts to influence elected and appointed officials regarding a specific issue or set of issues.
intergenerational mobility
A change in the social class of family memebers from one generation to the next.
internal colonialism
A theory of racial and ethnic inequality that suggests that some minorities are essentially colonial peoples within the larger society.
intragenerational mobility
A change in the social class of an individual within his or her own lifetime.