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258 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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What does sociology offer?
a perspective, a view of the world
What stresses the social contexts in which people live
Sociological perspective
A group of people who share a culture and a territory
Society
the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society
Social location
What makes us do what we do?
The society in which we grow up and our particular location in that society lie at the center of what we do and what we think
requires the development of theories that can be tested by systematic research
Science
Measured by science, when did sociology appear on the human scene?
about the middle of the 1800s, when social observers began to use scientific methods to test their ideas
What resulted in the birth of sociology?
The scientific method was being tried out in chemistry and physics about the time that the Industrial Revolution ended. With tradition no longer providing the answers to questions about social life, the logical step was to apply the scientific method to these questions.
the idea of applying the scientific method to the social world - first proposed by Auguste Comte
Positivism
the study of society
sociology
Who is often credited with being the founder of sociology? Why?
Auguste Comte
Who developed this idea and coined the term sociology (even though his conclusions have been abandoned)?
Auguste Comte
Who is sometimes called the second founder of sociology?
Herbert Spencer
Who coined the phrase, "only the most capable and intelligent members of the society survive, while the less capable die out."
Herbert Spencer
Who proposed that workers unite in revolution and throw off their chains of bondage resulting in a classless society - people will work according to their capabilities and receive according to their needs (classic conflict).
Karl Marx
Who identifies Social integration?
Emile Durkheim
the degree to which people are tied to thier social group, as a key social factor in suicide - people who have weaker social ties are more likely to commit suicide
Social integration
From Drukheim's study of suicide, we see what principle as being central in his research?
Human behavior cannot be understood simply in individualistic terms; we must always examine the social forces that affect people's lives
Whose idea was, "Religion was the key factor in the rise of capitalism."
Max Weber
What are sociological theories?
Statements about how facts are related to one another
___________ ______________are based on certain basic core assumptions, or basic metaphysical, epistemological and moral premises, about the nature of the social world.
sociological theories
What are some major sociological research methods used?
Surveys, observation, experiment, and analysis of existing data
Society is made up of interdependent parts that perform functions for society as a whole
Functionalist perspective
The majority agree on what would be good for everybody
Under the functionalist perspective, it is believed that society is held together by social consensus. What is it?
Portrays society as always changing and marked by conflict
Conflict perspective
A micro view of society - people assign meanings to each other's words and actions - our response to a person's actions is determined by our subjective interpretation of that action
Symbolic interactionist perspective
The researcher takes part in the group they are studying
participant observation
The researcher observes as an uninvolved outsider, from a distance
detached observation
What are the three primary theoretical frameworks?
Symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and conflict theory
_________ ______________concentrates on the meanings that underlie people's lives (usually focuses on the micro level)
symbolic interactionism
_________ _________stresses that society is made up of various parts that, when working properly, contribute to the stability of society (focuses on the macro level)
functional analysis
stresses inequalities and sees the basis of social life as a competitive struggle to gain control over scarce resources (also focuses on the macro level)
conflict theory
sociology that is used to solve social problems
applied sociology
A factor that causes a change in another variable
independent variable
a factor that is changed by an independent variable
dependent variable
a feeling of trust between researchers and subjects
rapport
individuals among a target population
samples
what people do when they are in one another's presence
social interaction
the scientific study of society and human behaviour
sociology
The _____ ______ stresses the social contexts in which people are immersed and that influence their lives.
sociological perspective
Who was the first African American to earn a doctrate at Harvard?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Who was concerned about social injustice & wrote about race relations?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Who taught sociology for most of their career at Atlanta University?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Who was the founder of Hull House - a settlement house in the immigrant community of Chicago
Jane Addams
Who in 1931, was a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize?
Jane Addams
an Englishwoman who published Society in America decades before either Durkheim or Weber was born?
Harriet Martineau
Who carried out doctoral research on homosexual activity - to obtain information, he misrepresented himself to his research subjects, when this became known he was questioned on his ethics?
Laud Humphreys
Who believed that societies evolve from barbarian to civilized forms? first to use the expression "survival of the fittest"
Herbert Spencer
Who was first to use the expression "survival of the fittest"?
Herbert Spencer
Who contributed the terms "manifest and latent functions" and "latent dysfunctions" to the functionalist perspective?
Robert Merton
Scientific research follows eight basic steps, what are they?
Selecting a topic, defining the problem, reviewing the literature, formulating a hypothesis, choosing a research method, collecting the data, analyzing the results, and sharing the results
A step of scientific research that involves collecting data by having people answer a series of questions?
surveys
When everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study, this is called what?
random sample
Whan a sample of specific subgroups of the target population in which everyone in the subgroup has an equal chance of being included in the study, this is called what?
stratified random sample
people who respond to a survey
respondents
A question in which the respondent selects one answer from a list of possible answers?
close-ended questions
A question in which the respondents answer the questions in their own words
open-ended questions
observing social behaviour of people who do not know they are being studied?
unobtrusive measures
How people use symbols to develop their views of the world and to communicate with one another is the definition of what?
Symbolic interactionists
What is the central idea of functional analysis?
Society is a whole unit; it is made up of interrelated parts that work together
What do functionalists say we need to look at to understand society?
Structure (how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole) and function (what each part does, how it contributes to society)
An action that is intended to help come part of a system?
manifest function
Unintended consequences that help a system adjust?
latent function
What do conflict theorists stress?
Society is composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources
large-scale patterns of society
macro-level
A step of scientific research that involves a statemenet of what you expect to find according to predictions that are based on a theory?
hypothesis
precise ways to measure variables?
operational definitions
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next?
culture
such things as jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, machines, hairstyles and clothing?
material culture
a group's way of thinking (beliefs and values) and doing (common patterns of behavior: language, gestures, interaction)?
nonmaterial culture
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life?
culture shock
a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
ethnocentrism
trying to understand a culture on its own terms - looking at how the elements of a culture fit together without judging those elements as superior or inferior to one's own way of life
cultural relativism
another name for nonmaterial culture - its central component is the symbols that people use
symbolic culture
something to which people attach meaning and that they then use to communicate (gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways)
symbols
using one's body to communicate with others - shorthand ways to convey messages without using words
gestures
symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought
language
Our ability to speak provides us with what?
a social past and future - language allows culture to develop
rather than objects and events forcing themselves onto our consciousness, it is our language that determines our consciousness, and hence our perception, of objects and events?
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
ideas of what is desirable in life - standards by which people define what is good and bad, beautiful and ugly
values
rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values
norms
reactions people get for following or breaking norms
sanctions
norms that are not strictly enforced
folkways
norms that we think of as essential to our core values and insist on conformity
mores
a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion
taboo
a world within the larger world of the dominant culture
subculture
some of the group's values and norms place it at odds with the dominant culture
counterculture
Type of society made up of many different groups?
pluralistic society
What country is an example of pluralistic society?
United States
What are some of the values in U.S. Society?
achievement and success; individualism; activity and work; efficiency and practicality; science and technology; progress; material comfort; humanitarianism; freedom; democracy; equality; racism and group superiority; education; religiosity; romantic love
independent values that are clutered together to form a whole
value clusters
refers to the values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aspiring to
ideal culture
the norms and values that people actually follow
real culture
tools and the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
technology
an emerging technology that has a significant impact on social life
new technology
What sets a framework for a group's nonmaterial culture?
Technology
not all parts of a culture change at the same pace, when some part of a culture changes, other parts lag behind?
What is cultural lag and who coined the term?
Who coined the term "cultural lag?"
William Ogburn
Who pointed out, "a group's material culture usually changes first, with the nonmaterial culture lagging behind."
William Ogburn
during contacts with other groups people learn from one another, adapting some part of the other's way of life - groups are most open to a change in their technology or material culture
cultural diffusion
a process in which cultures become similar to one another
cultural leveling
the entire human environment including direct contact with others?
social environment
when people learn to be members of the human community through human contact
socialization
the picture that we have of how others see us, our image of who we are
self
Who coined the term 'looking-glass self'?
Charles Horton Cooley
What refers to the process by which our self develops thruogh internalizing others' reactions to us?
looking-glass self
What are the three elements of the "looking-glass self"?
1. We imagine how we appear to those around us; 2. We interpret others' reactions; 3. We develop a self-concept
When does the development of the "self" end?
Never - it is never a finished project, but is always in process
What do childern learn during play?
to "take the role of the other" - to put themselves in someone else's shoes, to understand how someone else feels and thinks and to anticipate how that person will act
individuals who significantly influences one's life, such as parents or siblings
significant others
oru perception of how people in general think of us
generalized other
What are the three stages of "taking the role of others"?
1. Imitation (under 3 years old); 2. Play (3 - 6 years old); 3. Games
(from birth to about age 2) understanding is limited to direct contact with the environment
sensorimotor stage
(from about age 2 to age 7) develop the ability to use symbols
preoperational stage
(from the age of about 7 to 12) reasoning abilities are more developed, but they remain concrete
concrete operational stage
(after the age of about 12) children are now capable of abstract thinking
formal operational stage
A basic structure underlies the way we develop reasoning, and children all over the world begin with the concrete and move to the abstract.
What is Piaget's contribution to reasoning?
What three elements did Sigmund Freud say personality consisted of?
id-inborn drives that cause us to seek self-gratification; ego-the balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress its; superego-conscience
What does the superego represent?
the culture within us, the norms and values we have internalized from our social groups
factors such as social class and people's roles in groups underlie their behavior
central principle of sociology
What are the six basic emotions that Paul Ekman concluded are universal?
anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise
What is being referred to with the following phrase: society within you
socialization
expecting different attitudes and behaviors from us because we are male or female
gender socialization
individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
peer group
forms of communication that are directed to large audiences
mass media
giving privileges and obligations to one group of people while denying them to another
social inequality
people and groups that influence our orientations to life
agents of socialization
learning to play a role before entering it
anticipatory socialization
learning new norms, values, attitudes, and bevahiors to match their new situation in life
resocialization
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of the officials who run the place
total institution
an attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual's current identity and stamping a new one in its place
degradation ceremony
stages of life (from birth to death)
life course
places the focus on broad features of society
macrosociology
the emphasis is place on social interaction, what people do when they come together
microsociology
what people do when they come together
social interaction
the typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers
social structure
large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige
social class
the position that someone occupies
status
all the statuses or positions that someone occupies
status set
involuntary - you inherit an ascribed status at birth at are also given to you later in life
ascribed status
voluntary - you earn or accomplish as a result of your efforts
achieved status
signs that identify a status
status symbols
one that cuts across the other statuses that one holds
master status
a contradiction or mismatch between their statuses
status inconsistency
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
roles
What is the difference between roles and status?
You occupy a status and you play a role
consists of people who regularly interact with one another
group
the ways that each society develops to meet its basic needs
social institutions
depend on hunting and gathering for their survival - fewest social divisions - most egalitarian
hunting and gathering societies
based on the pasturing of animals
pastoral societies
based on the cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools
horticultural societies
many more people were able to engage in activities other than farming - to develop the things popularly known as culture
agricultural societies
far more efficient than anything the world had ever seen
industrial societies
one based on information, services, and the latest technology rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
postindustrial (information) societies
an economy that centers on the application of genetic structures - both plant and animal - for the production of food and medicine
bioeconomic society
people who perform similar tasks develop a shared consciousness, a sense of similarity that unites them into a common whole
mechanical solidarity
like organs - people perform different taks but depend on one another to make the whole
organic solidarity
social life is like a drama or a stage play
dramaturgy
the efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us
impression management
What is the difference between role conflict and role strain?
role conflict is conflict between roles, while role strain is conflict within a role
study of how people use commonsense understandings to make sense of everyday life
ethnomethodology
consist of individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together
aggregate
consists of people who share similar characteristics, such as college women who wear glasses
category
those characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation
primary groups
based on some interest or activity, and their members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statuses
secondary groups
many are ruled by a few
oligarchy
groups to which we feel loyalty
in-groups
those toward which we feel antagonism
out-groups
groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves
reference groups
clusters of people, internal factions
cliques
the links between people
social network
no other form of social organization is more efficient
bureaucracies
What is the corporate culture of U.S. compared to Japan?
U.S. - individualism, job shopping/hopping, work has set hours, perform on job, make decision on own; Japan - teamwork, lifetime security, work is like a marriage, broa training, decision by consensus
how groups influence us and how we affect groups
group dynamics
few enough members that each one can directly interact with all the other members
small group
smallest possible group, a group of 2 people
dyad
group of 3 people
triad
some group members aligning themselves agains others
coalition
What happens as a small group becomes larger?
it becomes more stable, but its intensity and intimacy decrease
someone who influences the behaviors, opinions, or attitudes of others
leader?
tries to keep the group moving toward its goal
instrumental leader
increases harmony, lifts group morale, and minimizes conflict
expressive leader
one who gives orders
authoritarian leader
one who tries to gain a consensus
democratic leader
one who is highly permissive
laissez-faire leader
collective tunnel vision that group members sometime develop
groupthink
What makes something deviant?
it is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant
any violation of norms
deviance
characteristics that discredit people
stigma
a group's customary social arrangements
social order
formal and informal means of enforcing norms
social control
ranges from frowns and gossip to imprisonment and capital punishment
negative sanctions
from smiles to formal awards
positive sanctions
inborn tendencies; in this context, to commit deviant acts
genetic predispositions
the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms
personality disorders
we learn to deviate or conform to society's norms by the different groups we associate with
differential association
two control systems work against our motivations to deviate
control theory
What are the control systems?
inner controls - internailized mobility; outer controls - people
the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into deviance or conformity
labeling theory
What are the 5 techniques of neutralization?
1. denial of resonsibility; 2. denial of injury; 3. denial of a victim; 4. condemnation of the condemners; 5. appeal to higher loyalties
What do labels do?
open and close doors of opportunity
According to functionalists, deviance is functional to society because it contributes to the social order by:
1. clarifying moral boundaries and affirming norms; 2. promoting social unity; 3. promoting social change
legitimate ways of achieving success
institutionalized means
when people strive to achieve cultural goals but are not presented with institutionalized means of getting there which may result in deviance
strain theory
crimes that people of respectable and hgih social status commit in the course of their occupations
white-collar crime
percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested
recidivism rate
How do conflict theorists explain deviance?
the position in power (the capitalist class) imposes its definitions of deviance on other groups (working calss and marginal working class)
What are common reactions to deviance in the U.S.?
imprisonment, capital punishment, degradation ceremonies, hate crimes
deviance represents mental illness
medicalization of deviance
a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige (does not refer to individuals)
social stratification
What are the three major systems of social stratification?
slavery, caste, and class
beliefs that justify social arrangements
ideology
status is determined by birth and is lifelong
caste system
marriage within their own group, and prohibits intermarriage (caste system)
endogamy
based primarily on money or material possessions, which can be acquired - so this sysem is much more open
class system
movement up or down the class ladder
social mobility
What did Karl Marx say determined social class?
means of production - the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
Marx said there are just two classes of people:
bourgeoisie - those who own the means of production; proletariat - those who work for the owners
What did Max Weber say made up social class?
a combination of property, prestige, and power
1. society must offer people greater awards to attract the most capable ones; 2. every society must have leadership 3. resources are limited and an elite emerges as groups struggle for them
social stratification universal
How are the world's nations stratified?
Most Industrialized, Industrializing, Least Industrialized
Why are some nations rich and others poor?
global stratification can be explained by: colonialism, world system theory, and the culture of poverty
one country making colonies out of other countries
colonialism
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
world system theory
a way of life that perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next
culture of poverty
a large group of people who rank closely to one another in wealth, power, and prestige
social class
What is the primary dimension of social class?
wealth - the value of a person's property
the ability to carry out your will despite resistance
power
those who make the big decisions in U.S. society
power elite
respect or regard
prestige
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class: education, income, and occupational prestige
status consistency
rankin ghigh on some dimensions of social class and low on others
status inconsistency?
our social ranking
status
Capitalist, Upper Middle, Lower Middle, Working, Working Poor, Underclass
the social classes
Symbolic interactionsist emphasize what?
people perceive events from their own corner in life
no aspects of life go untouched, from marriage to politics
What aspects of life go untouched by social class?
intergenerational, structural, and exchange
What are the three basic types of social mobility?
a change that occurs between generations (when grown-up children end up on a different rung of the social class ladder than were their parents)
intergenerational mobility
movement up the social class ladder
upward social mobility
movement down the social ladder
downward social mobility
changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder
structural mobility
when large numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder but, on balance, the proportions of the social classes remain about the same
exchange mobility
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include those whose incomes are less than three times a low-cost food budget
poverty line
What is one of the strongest factors in poverty?
race-ethnicity
As age increases, does poverty also do the same?
no - as age increases they are less likely than the general population to be poor
the values and bevahiors of the poor "make them fundamentally different from other Americans, and that these factors are largely responsible for their continued long-term poverty"
culture of poverty
Why are people poor?
Social structure - features of society deny some people access to education or learning job skills; Characterisitcs of Individuals - dropping out of school, having children in teen years, laziness, lack of intelligence
the belief that anyone can get ahead if only he or she tries hard enough
Horatio Alger Myth
a group of people whose perceived physical characteristics distinguish it from another group
race
the attempt to destroy people because of their presumed race or ethnicity
genocide?
people who identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage
ethnicity/ethnic
people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
minority group
the view that Americans from different backgrounds would blend into a sort of ethnic stew
melting pot
an action - unfair treatment directed against someone
discrimination
an attitude - prejudging of some sort, usually in a negative way
prejudice
negative treatment of a minority group that is built into a society's institutions
institutional discrimination
males' and females' unequal access to power, prestige, and property
gender stratification
Why are gender and age so significant?
they are master statuses