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181 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
is the scientific study of social relations, behaviors and arrangements. Socialogy is one of the social sciences
is a life-long learning process, which inl. the process by which infants become adults
Auguste Comte
was the first person to use the term sociology in 1838. He was a French Philisopher. The early sociologist were concerned with the study of moral statistic,a nd the first among these was suicide rates
Enuke Dyrjgeun
stydued tge relationship between suicide adn social forces. He held that behavior should not be considered an individualistic matter, but in a broader social context. he argued that there is a link b etween the degree of social integration and suicide. He believed the greater the autonomy or independence of a category of people, the higher the suicide rate. He came up wiht the term Anomie, which is a floundering, or loss of purpose and direction people experience during periods of extreme social change.
Max Weber
theory was that social behavior can only be understood when the meanings of the people's actions are known, it is necessary to understand the attitudes, feelings and beliefs. he called this Verstehen, a German word for understanding
german word for understanding
Karl Marx
focused on the struggle between social classes of people. Marx called owners of the means of production the bourgeoisie adn the non-owners the proletariat. Marx believed that a social class was determined solely by economics
W.E.B. Dubois
researched conflict theory as it petained to racial prejudice in hopes of achieving justice for his race. He helped gound NAACP
Charles Horton Cooley
George Herbert Mead
studied the effects of symbols such as nods of the head, clinched fists, smiles , frowns, stares etc. as individual behaviors that influence group hehaviors. They also confounded the symbolic interactionist perspective. Cooley introduced the term looking glass self, meaning the process by which humans develop their sense of self
is an explanation that predicts how and why certain matters such as hehavior or actions are related
means a broader based study of society as a whole. Sometimes referred to as functionalist, social evolutionary and conflict
is a more nearly restricted to the study of smaller patterns of behavior pr perspectives. Sometimes referred to as rational choice or self-interest theories
is a theory that assumes society to be compromised fo a large complex system in which smaller units cooperate to attain stability and in which all elements have a responsibility for preserving society itself. Herbert Spencer correlated this theory . This is a Macro theory
social conflict
theorist hold that society is a complex system in which social changes evolves from some form of inequality. Ex of conflict theorist include Martiniau Addams, Marx, Dubois
What did each theorist study:
Martiniau studied slavery and gender
Adams studied immigrants
Marx studied the conflict between owners and workers
Dubois studied the plight of African Americans.
Social theorist are interested in how race, gender, class are related to the distribution of wealth and power. This is the Macro theory
symbolic interactionists
believe in the study of the way individuals respond to social events or settings. This is the Micro theory
independent variable
the cause
dependant variable
the consequences of a cause
is the relationship between multiple variable. When both variables raise that is a positive correlation. When they do the opposite of each other (one rising while the other falls) that is a negative correlation
is a graphic presentation of correlation
is used to chart relationships within a group
or average is derived by dividing the sum of 2 or more amounts by the # of such amounts.
is the middle # of a series
There are four methods used in sociological research
experimental (not often used), surveyd, observation and study of existing findings
refer to what society believes to be right and proper
are rules by which human social behavior is influenced and governed
are norms enacted and enforced through the governance of a society
is a collection of norms through which persons in a given position are expected to behave
Erving Goffman
believes that people have 2 roles, the front stage and backstage. The front stage is the predominant stage EX. teacher is class and her backstage would be in a teachers meeting
is 2 or more persons who share social relationships in common and who interact or behave according to the expectations fo other group members
primary groups
are comprised of theose who not only interact often, but who are extremely close through great awareness of other group members and who have strong emotional feeling that untie them with others in the group(such as a family)
secondary groups
are those with common interactive behavior and expectations, but whose members are not sicially intimate as primary groups (such as a bowling team)
formal groups
are large secondary groups established to attain a specific goal (such as a corportation, universities, and govt units). Formal groups may be 3 different kinds of groups such as normative groups, coercive groups, and utilitarian groups
normative groups
religious organizations, political parties, and service clubs
coercive groups
prisons and mental institutes
utilitarian groups
large profit making companies
are gatherings of people assembled by chance and for only a brief time
is a violation of norms
Edwin H Sutherland
proposed Differential Association Theory.; he argues that how we act is based upon how those around us want us to act
Four social bonds between individuals and the groups
attachments, investment, involvement, beliefs
relationships in which there is a stable, strong interaction between group members
time and commitment through attachment
more one invest in conformity that less time and energy are available to engage in non-conformance
internalization of norms
a condition of normlessness brought about by a lack of attachments
referred to rural villages as Moral Communities. He viewed moral communities as characterized by social integration which refers to the many attachments prevalent in the villages as well as by Moral integration which regers to the beliefs that provided for shared moral ideas leading to mutually accepted norms
an eye for an eye, the longest standing form of punishment for deviance
as rationalization for punishment of non-conformists is based upon settign examples
as justification for punishment is designed to reform non-conformists. Criminals are resocialized or taught to discard earlier behaviors and replace them with newly accepted ones
social protection
make the non-conformists incapable of repeating the same crime or committing other crimes (execution, incarceration or sterilization)
labeling theory
of deviance holds that most deviance results form having been labeled a deviant
primary deviant
is a person who had behaved such that people identify him as deviant
secondary deviance
is behavior exhibited as a reaction to having been identified as a deviant
daniel Bell
created the term ethnic succession, which means the use of organized crime as a means to escape poverty
means farming societies
social change
principally occurs via one or more of 3 sources: Discovery, invention, and diffusion
uncovering of new ideas of an exciting idea
new ideas that effect social change
spread of cultural elements from one society to another
William F Ogburn
used the term Cultural Lag to describe delays in social change between on part of society and another. ( boom)
Mass-Society theory
postulates that modernization leads to big government, necessary to carry out matters that in simpler societies were handled within the family
Class-Society Theory
capitalism pool wealth in the hands of a few, the masses become less powerful
theory claims that tradition keeps poor nations poor
social movements
is any organization whose prupose is to effect soxial change or provent such a change (i.e. aids movement, women's rights, and racial equality)
deprivation theory
contends that some level of deprivation triggers peoples action
mass-society theory
people with no particular roots are drawn together for some personal or political reason.
resource-mobilization theory
the movements successes are limited by resources available to further the cause
New Social Movement Theory
holds that the recent movements have been more related to the quality of life than economic matters
Social movements tend to evolve through 4 stages:
emergence- generated by the percertion that something in society is asded and needs correcting
Coalescence- recruitment of supporters and development of policies and intended tactics
Bureaucratization- staff becomes more proessional with less emphasis on original leadershop
Decline- time at which movement loses its vigor
is a life long learnign process by which individuals become persons capable or more capable of participating in society
differential socialization
the process by which role definition with in the family or society causes member to be railed differently (royal family)
anticipatory socialization
this involves all socialization activities, from childhood that occur n rehearsal for future responsibilities (learning fathers trade)
presentation of self and role performance
used by Goffman means the way people attempt to create impressions of themselves in the minds fo others
groups of people who share social relationships and a distinctive way of life. (culture is tied to society such that they do not exist separately)
involves newcomers adjusting to the culture by which they find themselves surrounded
involves being able to live with each others differences
William Graham Sumner is the tendency to believe that one's own culture is best
cultural relativism
involved viewing behaviors within a culture solely based on that culture
Franz Boas put Cultural Determinism forth
and that principle is based on the belief that regardless of how a particular culture originated, the culture is entirely determined by the behavior of its members
Audience effect
when the audience impacts our behavior
co-action effect
occurs when the action or inaction of others impacts the behavior of a subject
$ theoretical perspectives have been used to study social interaction; symbolic interactionist, dramaturgy, ethnomethodologist adn social exchange
Symbolic interactionist- people do not respond directly to there environment but rather to the attach meanings to matter in their environment and then reactaccorings to that meaning
Goffman says prople paly roles much as actors in a play
focus on how people understand their social enviroment by using common sense to guide their social reality
social exchange
cost/benefit approach
social stratifiaction
mean layering of society
are layers of societies usually known as poor, middle class and wealthy
social mobility
is when a person either movers up in a class (upward mobility)or down in a class(down mobility)
achieved status
a status that one earns
ascribed status
refers to the position in society derived by birth
when it is impossible to alter one's status (caste society india)also can be called a closed system of stratification
structural mobility
when social mobility occurs as a result of a change in the distribution of various statutes within a society
exchange mobility
that which occurs when an upward or downward status change causes someone to exchange places with the persons being dislodged
Karl Marx
saw class distinction solely as an exonomic one. He believed ownership-determined class
Max Weber
Identified the classes as Class (property), status (prestige), and party (power)
Gaetano Mosca
proclaimed that societes must be sratified. He contended as rationale that: political organization is requisite to societies (meaning coordination and decision making for order in society), there will be inequalities of pwoer whenever the political organization exists, and those with power will exploit those with no or less power as a means to gain materail possessions
Kingsley Davis
Wilbert E Moore
functionalist- believe that society is a system of roles and that inequality is logically factored into such roles. They argue that some roles are simply more important than others
social evolutionists
believe that people constantly improve their culture until it becomes so complex that specialization is required to manage it
conflict theorist
perceives that societies are more stratified then necessary; hold 2 significant beliefs about stratification. They contend that since people function selfishly, people in positions to do so will take advantage of others. This they call exploitation. Second, conflict theorists believe that those able to do so will limit replace ability, or form a monopoly for their positions
became a by product of farm surplus
may be defined as a group with noticeable features such as skin, hair color, hair texture and shape of eyelids
Gordon W Allport
subscribes to the theory that status plays a major role in conflict between races and ethnic groups. He contends that relations between groups are dependent upon equality of status
Dyadic power
uneven percentages of male and female lead to this
Robert Michaels
who coined the term iron law of oligarchy, notes the bureaucratization of labor unions and socialist political parties. He contends that democratic organizations tend to become bureaucracies because members look for leadership and leaders wish to maintain the power and privileges attendant to their roles
Pierre Bourdeieu
calls benefits derived because of the presitge those benefits bestow are called cultural capital
Structural-functionalist theorists
developed the disengagement theory about aging. This theory holds that as people age, they slowly back away form selected activities and relinquish attendant social responsibilities
symbolic interactionists
believe that the more involved oldsters are in activities, the more fulfilling their lives will be, thus called the activity theory
confluct theorist
recognized that wealthy elderly enjoy better health care, security, and activity availability than do the poor
social institutions
are relatively stable, long term and structural frameworks that address matters that recurrently must be tended to
family institute
the basis is the nurturing of newborns and their socialization by those with close kinship
the males are leaders of the kinship group, but in 2/3 of these families, the women managed to care and discipline of the children
nuclear family
a male and a female adult plus offspring, natural or adopted. Most humans become part of 2 nuclear families, the one they are born into is called the nuclear family of orientation, and the one created through marriage and chose is called the nuclear family of procreation or conjugal family
extended families
are composed of more than one adult couple in the family
believes the family to be the central institution in all societies
conflict theorist
speak more to what they term dysfunctional aspects of families
William F Ogburn
defined the 6 dominant family functions as : reproduction, protection, socialization, sexual behavior, affection and companionship and conferring social status
Economy institutions
are the systems of production, distrubution, and consumption of services and goods
agricultural revolution
brought about 4 significant changes: the advnace of agricultural technology, productive specializaiton, permanent villages and trade
industrial revolution
brought about 5 changes: new energy sources, factories, manufacturing and mass production, further specialization and wages
complex economic institutions
are comprised of 3 sectors: primary sector (predominant in preindustrial societies and underdeveloped nations, involved extracting resources from the environment), secondary sector (transforms the raw materials into manufactured goods), and the tertiary sector (involves services not goods)
Political System Institution
by which society distribute power and authority so decisions in the best interest of the societies can be made and enforced
is a form of govt wherein the power to rule is vested in a king or queen and remains in that one family form generation to generation
is characterized by power being exercised by the citizens though elections of representatives to carry out the will of the people
is a governing mechanism whereby the people are given no say in how they are ruled
is the strictest form of rule. It is characterized by an extreme central focus fo power whereby people's lives are thoroughly regulated
Power elite
is that the political power resides primarily in the wealthy and influential.
C. Wright Mills
calls the small group of govt., business and military leaders holding powerful positions of power elite
Military Industrial Complex
is the relationship between the military and arms manufacturers
pluralist model
supported by Robert Dahl, claims that political power in the US is dispersed among interest groups
Functional Theorist
perceive of education as an essential and desirable institution that augments the family role of socializing its youth
conflict theorist
believes that the way education is conducted in the US contributes to existing social inequalities. They also see the practice of tracking as contributing to the perception of social inequality. Higher education is viewed as a social necessity thatn educational requirement
another Institute
Emile Durkheim
held that things are either scared (supernatural)or profane (outside the temple)
religious pluralism
many religions to choose from in a close proximity
religious economy
a condition where religions are free to market themselves to the population
Max Weber
defines churches (intellectualize religious teachings and restain emotions) and sects (thrive on emotionalism not intellectualism)
richard Niebuhr
espoused what is called the church-sect theory. He saw class conflict as the catalyst to cause the religious conflicts that have resulted in so many denominations today. He held that sects serve the lower class and churches serve the upper class
are religious movements toward a new religious tradition
is the process of becoming overly worldly at the expense fo stressing the importance and the presence of the super natural
structural Functionalist
theorist perceives medicine as composed of 3 aspects: health maintenance research and innovative/experimental health tx and social control
conflict interaction
theorist view medicine, and the need for medical attention as a matter of perception
is the cultivation of plants
is the domestication of animals
social surplus
is when one can feed themselves plus other families thus release peoples to work in other trades
used to describe certain relationships
is the scientific study of population trends. It is the study of how fertility, mortality, and migration impact populations
growth rate
of the population is the net population change divided by the size of the population at the beginning of the year and the multiplying the result by 100
Crude Birth Rate
crude Death Rate
is attained by the total # of annual births or deaths by the total population at the beginnign of the year. They are called crude as they pertain to the total # not to the sexes
fertility rates
is derived by dividing the # of births by the # of females ages 15-44
infant mortality
rate means the # of deaths among children under the age one for each 1000 births durign the year. In 1998 it was 7.2
life expectancy
is the average # of years people in society live
birth cohorts
are all the people in a given population in a given time frame. These are essential to governmental planners
Thomas Robert Malthus's
was the first to offer a theory on the population change. He believed that the human drive for sex would grow population ultimately larger than food surplus. Although this never happened
Kingsley Davis
Demographic transition theory that replaced Malthus's theory. This is a theory that ties population patterns to a society's level of technology. This theory consists in 4 stages: preindustrial (stable pop), beginning of industrialization (birth rate remains high while death rates decrease), fully industrialized (birth and death rates drop), migration
migration rate
the difference between the # of persons entering and the # departing a society each year, per 1000 people in the population
study many applications of population changes. All related to fertility rates, mortality rates, and migration rates
human ecologist
study how people interrelate wihtin their physical space and environment. The interrelations within cities are called urban ecology
Robert Park
Ernest Burgess
2 early urban ecologists. Burgess developed concentric zone theory, based on land use in Chicago, wherin he saw the core of a city the central business district.
process of succession
or ethic succession is the replenishment of the transition zones by the culturally lowest status group. Burgess saw each succeeding outward circle representing increasing affluence
C.D. Harris
Edward L Ullman
multiple nuclei- i.e. shopping malls, industrial parks, financial centers and entertainment centers. All of which were place in many parts of society regardless fo concentric zones.
Joel Garreau
calls edge cities, thus a city and its suburbs a metropolis
is when metropolitan areas grow together
conflict theorist
hold that urban developers often overlook social forces. Thus the poor are ignored
stands for standard metropolitan statistical area
Fixed rail metropolis
means it grew around a railroad thus freeway metropolis means it grew around a freeway
decentralized metropolis
is comprised of enclaves
index of dissimilarity
indicates the racial segregation of a neighborhood
coined sociological imagination
Named sociology
De Chanpneuf
initiated and supervised the writing of the "compte"
the stability of Crime
society plays a role in shaping behavior
contributed "Homme Moyen"--average person
researched educational effect on behavior
1833 book "Essai" which launched sociology
Had 1st sense of sociological imagination
high suicide rates reflect the weakness of the society not the individual
anomie-social normalness
Karl Marx
1800 conducted th 1st open survey on english workers r/t conflict theory. stted:culture and social structures are created by the ruling class to serve their own interest
2 classes r/t production: Bourgeoise-owners, rich
Proliterariat- workers, poor
did have a middle class but predicted it to fail
Lumpenprolrtariat- bottom of society, social scum
Class consciousness- similar people in society that share comparable prospects and mutual interests and have a common class enemy
Stratification according to Marx:
Weber- Dementions of stratification- siad Marx beliefs were simple and introduced 3 factors that influence stratification
The 3 Ps
Weber r/t status inconsistancy- people in a higher status group and lower in another will be frustrated and dissatisfied
Weber linked capitalism
calvinist doctrine of predestination
Weber- Principle of Verstehen
subjective beliefs that motivate people to act
social eveolution theorist
Social evolutionary theory- the better adapted culture will survive the environment
Founder of NAACP
analogy of circumstances of African Americans in Atlanta
Edited NAACP publication "Crisis"
conflict theorist
founded 1st dept of sociology in of chicago
Founded "American Journal of Sociology"