Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

532 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
#'s 1 - 25 are from the Tabbed Binder Section.

What does a sex ratio of 120 mean in a population?
120 males for every 100 females
Industrialization is most likely to reduce the importance of which of the following functions of the family?
Economic production
The process by which an individual learns how to live in his or her social surroundings is known as?
Of Laws, Folkways, and Mores, which are considered norms?
Which of the following theorists agreed that class conflict was inevitable in a capitalistic society and would result in revolution?
Karl Marx
What relies heavily on sampling methods?
What allows human beings to adapt to diverse physical environments?
According to Emile Durkheim, a society that lacks clear-cut norms to govern aspirations and moral conflicts is characterized by?
The process by which an immigrant or an ethnic minority is absorbed socially into a receiving society is called?
The term "sociology" was coined by it founder, the 19th century positivist?
Auguste Comte
According to Emile Durkheim, the more homogeneous a group the greater its?
Mechanical solidarity
Demographic patterns have clearly demonstrated that more males than females are born in?
Virtually every known human society
Max Weber's 3 dimensions of social stratification are?
Status, class, and power
The term "SMSA" used in the United States census refers to a?
Standard metropolitan statistical area
In order for an occupation to be considered a profession by a sociologist, it must be an occupation that?
Is based on abstract knowledge and a body of specialized information
In the study of social class, the sociologist would be LEAST likely to focus on?
An example of folkway in American society is?
Eating a sandwich for lunch
Personality formation and the learning of social roles takes place?
Throughout the life cycle
According to the US Bureau of Census, the fastest-growing household type since the 1980's has been the
Single person
A school system that teaches children of different ethnic groups in their own language & about their own particular ethnic heritage illustrates a policy of?
Max Weber linked the emergence of capitalism to the?
Calvinist doctrine of predestination
The economy of postindustrial USA is NOT characterized by?
Increased job security due to globalization
Which statement about political participation in the US is true?
Voter turnout in the US is lower than in most European nations
What is defined as an organized sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, designed to support improtant values & to meet human needs?
Social institution
Most of the funding for public schools in the US comes from?
Local property taxes
(CH 1 - TUTORIAL QUIZ #'s 26-34)

The 2 major cornerstones of the scientific method are?
Theory and research
In the Wealth of Nations, Smith developed his?
Economic theory of supply and demand
Quetelet maintained that stable suicide rates with a given area suggest that?
Social forces shape individual behavior
The early US sociologist est'd a sociological lab at Atlanta University & investigated social forces influencing African American life.
W.E.B. DuBois
Nations are often used as a unit of analysis in?
Macro sociological studies
The family is generally treated as a?
Primary group
As the sense of belonging and loyalty increases, social solidarity tends to?
In the study of monastic life, the older men who were satisfied with the existing monastic rules and wanted to keep things the same were ruled?
Instead of being a questionnaire to study belief in astrology, Stark and Bader decided to use astrology listings from the Yellow Pages, this is an example of?
An unobtrusive measure
A sociological theory that explained why some societies become rich while others remain poor in terms of different patterns of relationships with other societies in the global system would be an example of
a social theory
A sociological theory that explained differential job-hunting success in terms of differences in social networks would be an example of
a social theory
On the basis of this chapter, you should be able to recognize a social or a cultural theory when you see one. A sociological theory that explained the persistence of poverty in terms intergenerationally-transmitted values of the poor would be an example of
a cultural theory
(CH 2 - Concepts for Social & Cultural Theories)
We saw in Chapter 1 that sociological research begins with wonder. What Chapter 2 wonders about and seeks to explain is
why immigrant groups had different rates of assimilation and mobility
The distinction between society and culture is primarily a distinction between
social relationships and shared meanings
Which of the following is not an example of an achieved status?
a. janitor
b. lover of music
c. Italian-American
d. parent
The caste system in traditional India was an extreme example of a society based on
ascribed status
Granovetter's research on social networks and job-getting strategies demonstrated
the strength of weak ties
Which of the following are generally not characteristic of local networks?
structural holes
Research on local and cosmopolitan networks shows that
each has its advantages and disadvantages
Rules governing behavior are called
On the Titanic, the special treatment of women and children under the slogan of "women and children first" was an example of
a norm
The basic difference between norms and values is that
values are general while norms are specific
The distinction between prejudice and discrimination is based on the difference between
attitudes and behavior
When an immigrant group adopts the culture of the host society and ceases over time to exist as a separate group, ________ has occurred.
The idea that values about education accounted for the different income levels reached by Italian and Jewish immigrants is an example of a
cultural theory
Research by Steinberg and others subsequently found that the economic status of first-generation immigrants in their new societies was largely determined by their occupational status in the society of origin. This finding lent support to
social theory
Research by Perlmann, whose data allowed him to control for both ethnic and occupational background in comparing children of immigrants, suggests that
the data support elements of both the cultural and the social theories
According to the text, a concept that helps explain the initial low mobility of Italian immigrants is
reference group
Studies of the Italian family in America suggest
that its values have not changed significantly but its norms have
(CH 3 - Micro Sociology, Testing Interaction Theories)

Following Durkheim's lead, early sociologists tended to emphasize
external forces as primary sources of human behavior
When Dennis Wrong complained about sociology's "oversocialized conception" of humans, he was criticizing sociology
a. for overemphasizing external factors
b. for ignoring the fact that socialization doesn't always work
c. ALL***
d. paying insufficient attention to human thought processes
Dennis Wrong is a
Micro sociologists are especially interested in
the interplay between the individual and the group
According to Stark, most sociologists believe that human choices are rational within the limits of
their information and available choices
From a rational choice perspective, altruistic people (e.g. like Mother Theresa)
are behaving rationally like everyone else, but have special preferences and tastes
According to Stark, the two major examples of micro sociological theories are
symbolic interaction theory and exchange theory
The micro sociological theory that is generally considered "distinctively American" and that historically dominated micro sociology in the U.S. is
symbolic interaction theory
The sociologist who coined the term "symbolic interaction" and became its most influential proponent for many years was
Herbert Blumer
The "social construction of meaning" suggests that
a. human beings act on the basis of meanings
b. meanings arise out of social interaction
c. ALL****
d. people actively interpret and respond to these meanings
Which of the following statements is most compatible with the "social construction of meaning" perspective?
No object or behavior has intrinsic meaning; that meaning must be created
The work of Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead was particularly important in establishing the idea of
the social construction of the self
According to Stark, what concept of symbolic interactionism particularly links symbolic interaction theory to rational choice theory?
definition of the situation
What is not an assumption of exchange theory?
the more intense the group solidarity, the less intense the demand for conformity
Sociologists try to establish nonspuriousness in asserting a causal relationship by
seeing if any other variable explains the relationship
A relationship between two variables is said to be spurious when
a third variable explains why the two variables are correlated
The variable that a sociologist wonders about and wants to explain is called the
dependent variable
If two variables are strongly correlated, either positively or negatively, we can assume that a causal relationship exists between them. T or F?
A test of significance establishes
the chances that a correlation could have occurred by chance
In Solomon Asch's famous experiment, the dependent variable was
conformity to the group
Stark and Lofland's study of religious conversion was based on
field research
Stark and Lofland found that the primary basis for conversion to the Unification Church was
interpersonal ties
Replication studies of religious conversion have
supported Stark and Lofland's findings about attachments
The changes people make in their behavior when they know that they are being studied are referred to as
observer effects
In their study, Stark and Lofland were
overt observers
(CH 4 - Macro Sociology, Studying Larger Groups)

In an experiment, Darley and Latané found that the willingness of people to help others depended on group size. Stark discusses group size as an example of
a social structure
A study based on the collection of data from all cases is based on
Which of the following is a proportional fact?
Twelve percent of families in the community own dogs.
Which matters most in determining whether a sample will provide an accurate picture of a population?
the size of the sample
Stark and Hirschi first found church attendance and delinquency to be correlated. When they controlled for sex, they found that the original correlation disappeared. They therefore concluded that the correlation between church attendance and delinquency
was spurious
Replication research sometimes confirmed Stark and Hirschi's findings and sometimes did not. Stark and Hirschi concluded that this was because
a. the impact of church attendance varies with the social context
b. ALL***
c. the relationship between church attendance and delinquency depended on the social context
d. a contextual effect was involved
Stark and Hirschi concluded that church attendance was most likely to reduce delinquency where
most people belonged to a religious organization
In his long-term study of communes, Zablocki found that communes were likely to be most unstable where the intensity of "loving" relationships was
In terms of the social scientific process discussed in Chapter 1, Zablocki's use of the membership turnover rate and the disintegration rate as his dependent variables is an example of
The term sociologists give to clusters of roles, groups, and social practices that are devoted to meeting fundamental needs of society is
social institution
The macro sociological theory that analyzes how the parts of a system contribute to the system as a whole (including its other parts) is
If over time a new institution takes over the functions of a previous institution, we could conclude that the new institution represents a
functional alternative
The basic assumption of social evolutionary theories is that direction of change over the long-term in most societies is towards
Cooley and Mead
Which of the following questions is the one most asked by conflict theorists?
Who benefits from a given state of affairs?
For Marx, the most important groups in society are almost always
social classes
Weber saw class conflict as important, but insisted that the role of ________ could be equally or more important.
status groups
Sociological studies that use societies as the unit of analysis are generally based on
experimental research
Napoleon Chagnon's study of the Yanomamo is famous because of the ________ he found among the Yanomamo.
high level of violence
Paige found that factional violence in small-scale societies varied with
rules of residence
(CH 5 - Biology, Culture, & Society)

Instinctive behavior...
does not have to be learned
Many sociologists in the early decades of the 20th century proposed explanations for cultural difference based on
differences in biology and heredity
Stark describes the subsequent history of the social sciences as
a period of total rejection of biological factors followed by a recognition of the interplay of biology and society
The concept which refers to an organism as an outcome of the interplay of its genetic makeup and its environment is
The goal of behavioral genetics
to isolate human characteristics and behavior that are influenced by genetic inheritance
Studies of identical twins raised separately have been of particular importance to behavioral geneticists because
similarities they may have can't be explained by common upbringing
Studies of identical twins lend support to the proposition
that there are significant behavioral patterns that do have a genetic basis
The fact that people have been getting taller almost everywhere is proof that
the interplay of genetic potential and the environment has changed
The Vietnam Veterans study is important because it showed that
the level of testosterone was strongly correlated with a broad range of outcomes for these men
The historic claims of the Lema, a southern African tribe, to be descended from Jews has been lent support by
DNA testing
Jane Goodall is famous for her studies of
Goodall's work established that
a. chimps kill and eat other animals
b. chimps use tools
c. ALL***
d. chimps sometimes murder each other
e. chimps have culture
The Harlow experiments on monkeys showed that monkeys raised in isolation
a. were unable to engage in normal interaction
b. ALL***
c. were highly abnormal
d. never learned to engage in sex
The chimpanzee Washoe is important because she demonstrated the capacity to
learn human sign language
Stark's discussion of research by Goodall and others suggests that the difference between humans and other animals
is less than often assumed
(CH 6 - Socialization & Social Roles)

Feral children are children who were
isolated from most human contact
Socialization begins at birth and ends at
Research on the "Mozart Effect" and other efforts to accelerate human development has generally found that
it is generally not possible to accelerate human development beyond its normal pace
Piaget's key insight into cognitive development was to understand that
it proceeds through stages, each of which is a prerequisite for the next one
The world-famous linguist who has argued that humans have an inborn ability to learn and use language is
Noam Chomsky
Linguistic studies have confirmed Mead's insight that
awareness of others precedes awareness of self
The anthropologist who led the charge in the 1920s and 1930s against biological determinism and in favor of cultural determinism was
Franz Boas
The anthropologist who became the most widely-known popularizer of Boaz' ideas and who stressed the determining role of culture in shaping personality and social roles was
Margaret Mead
In her famous study of sex and temperament among three ethnic groups in New Guinea, Margaret Mead concluded that gender roles
have no biological basis whatsoever
Mead argued that differences in temperament between the Arapesh and the Mundugumor were the result of
child-rearing practices
Stark argues that subsequent research has shown that Boas and Mead
were right about the importance of culture but overstated their case
Melvin Kohn's study of middle class and working class families illustrates the concept of
differential socialization
Kohn found that the values parents sought to instill in their children were most closely related to
adult socialization
A longitudinal study is one in which observations are made of
the same people at several different times
Goffman's concepts of role performance and impression management demonstrate that
people generally have a lot of latitude in how they actually act out a role
Goffman's concept of studied nonobservance points to the role of ________ in successful role performance.
Sex-role socialization is
an almost universal example of differential socialization
(CH 7 - Crime & Deviance)

In sociology, deviance is defined as
norm violation
The concept of criminalization refers to
the processes by which various acts become legally prohibited
Stark prefers the definition of crime put forth by Gottfredson and Hirschi because in this definition
a. it puts the focus on criminal acts, rather than actors
b. ALL***
c. crime does not depend on legality, which varies
d. it makes a general theory of crime possible
According to Stark, the American public
does not have a realistic portrait of crime
What is not a common characteristic of "ordinary crimes?"
crimes carried out by individuals who specialize in that particular form of crime
In recent years, crime rates for crimes such as robbery and homicide have been
The concept of offender versatility refers to
the tendency of offenders to commit a broad range of crimes
Which of the following is a characteristic of the typical criminal act?
a. ALL***
b. Little or no planning is involved
c. The rewards are immediate
d. The rewards are small and fleeting
e. The crime is easy to commit and simple in design
Compared to other countries, the homicide rate in the United States is
higher than most other industrialized countries but lower than some others
The man who developed an influential theory of "born criminals" based on physical body types was
Cesare Lombroso
There has long been a debate about whether a genetic predisposition to crime exists. Stark discusses the work of Walter Gove to show that
it is the interplay of biology, gender, and deviance that needs to be studied
Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that the fundamental psychological feature shared by those who commit ordinary criminal acts is
weak self-control
Deviant attachment theories stress how attachment to deviant others may make deviant behavior a type of conforming behavior. Which of the following is not an example of a concept based on deviant attachments?
a. subcultural deviance
b. differential association
c. offending families
Robert Merton's theory of structural strain was based on the relationship between
societal goals and means
White collar crimes are defined as
crimes committed by high status people in the course of their occupation
The theory that, instead of asking why people commit crimes, asks why people do not commit crimes most of the time, is
control theory
Control theory argues that deviant behavior is more likely to occur when
when the social bonds between an individual and the group are weak
The pioneering French sociologist Emile Durkheim argued that crime and other deviant activities tended to occur in societies and groups characterized by
weak social and moral integration
The perspective that argues that the key question to ask about deviance is why people are labeled as deviants, and what consequences labeling has on those so labeled, is
labeling theory
Research on drugs and crime indicates that
drug use is a common part of offender lifestyle, but not a major cause of crime
(CH 8 - Social Control)

Social control refers to
all collective efforts to ensure conformity to social norms
Which of the following is not an example of informal social control?
a fine
Japan is a society that relies particularly heavily on
informal social control
Mechanisms of formal social control include
a. none of the choices
b. resocialization
c. deterrence
d. ALL ***
e. prevention
The perspective that recognizes that the occurrence of crime requires not only people motivated to commit an offense but also suitable targets and the absence of effective guardians is called
opportunity theory
The Cambridge-Somerville experiment involved
In terms of its objective of reducing delinquency, the Cambridge-Somerville experiment was
a failure
Other experiments in delinquency prevention have generally
been failures in preventing delinquency
What is not a form of deterrence?
rehabilitation programs
Gibbs' deterrence theory says that punishment will be most effective if it is
rapid, certain, and severe
According to Stark, the current state of the debate over capital punishment is that
no one knows whether capital punishment deters homicide
Most crimes are reported to the police. T or F?
Stark's discussion of the criminal justice system in the U.S. indicates that the conditions specified by Gibbs' deterrence theory
are not met
According to a study by Zeisel, out of every 1000 felonies committed in the U.S., ________ result in a sentence of more than one year
Recividism refers to
the propensity to commit a new crime after a previous conviction
The recidivism rate in the U.S. is about
The cost of keeping a person in prison in the U.S. is about
Stark suggests that a theoretical perspective from Chapter 7 that helps explain why efforts to resocialize prisoners generally fail is
control theory
The Transitional Aid Research Project (TARP) sought to reduce recidivism by making payments to ex-prisoners. The evaluation research shows
that the recidivism rate was the same for the subjects and the control group
Stark concludes that overall,
social control works reasonably well, especially informal social control
(CH 9 - Stratification)

Marx defined classes in terms of
their relationship to the means of production
Marx tended to assume that non-economic differences between people, e.g. in terms of status or power,
derived mainly from differences in property ownership
Weber argued that in addition to classes, important groups formed on the basis of
prestige and power
Status inconsistency theories predict
that people with inconsistent statuses tend to be more radical
Systems in which ascription is the overwhelming basis of stratification are often called
caste systems
Exchange mobility occurs when
upward mobility is balanced by downward mobility
In a society with only structural mobility, which of the following is least likely to be true?
Prejudice and discrimination are preventing low status people from rising
The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu has stressed that
dominant social classes have powerful cultural assets
What is not an example of cultural capital?
inherited wealth
Functionalist theory argues that social stratification is inevitable because
differential rewards are necessary to motivate the most competent people to fill the most important positions
Stark's discussion of "replaceability" is designed to correct a weakness in the functionalist theory of stratification, which involves the concept of
functional importance
Evolutionary theories of stratification focus on how
specialization results in inequality
According to Stark, while functionalist theory can explain why doctors earn more than orderlies, it requires ________ to explain why the actual income gap is as large as it is.
conflict theory
Professionalization and unionization are two strategies designed to
decrease replaceability
In his conclusion, Stark suggests that the major theories of stratification
usefully complement each other
(CH 10 - Comparing Systems of Stratification)

To make sense of stratification in one society, sociologists
compare it to other societies
The least stratified societies have generally been
hunting and gathering societies
In hunting and gathering societies, the primary bases of stratification are
physical strength
Compared to nomadic hunting and gathering societies, settlement almost always brings
an increase in stratification
The key to growing complexity and inequality in agricultural societies is
surplus food production
Warfare, as opposed to self-defense or raiding, emerges and becomes endemic with
agrarian societies
Agricultural surpluses made possible
a. full-time specialists in government
b. new forms of exploitation
c. a complex division of labor
d. ALL ***
Two technological inventions that increased military domination in agrarian societies in agrarian societies were
stirrups and the Norman saddle
The most stratified societies tend to be
agrarian societies
Stark suggests that we need to combine insights from functionalist and conflict theories of stratification to understand why industrial societies became less stratified. His point about how increased skill levels led to a decline in replaceability draws on
functionalist theory
Stark's point about how workers became more powerful, more able to resist coercion, and more able to press their own demands, draws on
conflict theory
Industrialization was associated with
a shift from ascribed to achieved status
Studies by Lipset and Bendix in the 1950s found that
all industrial societies had similarly high rates of social mobility
Bendix and Lipset concluded that the source of social mobility in industrial societies was primarily
structural mobility
What is not true for the United States, according to Stark's summary of more recent research?
Americans are more likely to object to the level of income inequality in their society
Blau and Duncan's work on status attainment found
the most important mechanism linking occupational status of fathers to sons was education
Cohen and Tyree's more recent work on status attainment has highlighted the importance of
marital status
Porter's studies of status attainment in Canada found that
processes of status attainment in Canada and the U.S. are virtually identical
Research by Michael Hout and others suggests that in the U.S. in recent years,
structural mobility has been declining but exchange mobility has been increasing
In his attempt to test in China Granovetter's finding about the "strength of weak ties" in securing jobs, Yanjie Bian found
that influence and therefore local networks are most important in China
(CH 11 - Racial & Ethnic Inequality & Conflict)

The classification of groups into races is generally based on
physically-observable differences
Race is important to society
only to the degree to which people attach cultural meaning to physical differences
A color-blind society would be one in which
people ceased to attach cultural meaning to human biological variations
Ethnic groups are based on
social perceptions of cultural commonality and difference
Cultural pluralism exists when intergroup conflict ends through
Research on intergroup conflict in the 1950s and 1960s focused on
explaining what caused some people to be prejudiced
The social psychologist Gordon Allport concluded that
contact reduces prejudice when groups cooperate to pursue common goals
The word "slavery" derives from the word for
Slavs of Eastern Europe
Most sociologists today believe that
status inequality between groups is the major cause of prejudice and discrimination, not vice versa
It follows from the consensus among most sociologists that efforts to reduce intergroup conflict should focus above all on
eliminating intergroup inequality
An example of a white Anglo-Saxon Protestant group that was stereotyped and discriminated against in similar ways to ethnic and racial minorities in the U.S. was the
As Japanese Americans gained economic parity with whites,
a. intermarriage rapidly rose
b. ALL ***
c. prejudice towards them rapidly declined
d. interracial births involving one Japanese parent came to outstrip births to Japanese couples
is not a mechanism of ethnic and racial mobility, as discussed by Stark?
caste systems with cultural divisions of labor
Stark argues that it important to take "immigration effects" into account in judging the progress of Hispanic Americans because
the continuing entry of poor immigrants from Latin America brings down the averages for the Hispanic American population as a whole
Research shows that compared to other immigrant groups in the past, Hispanic Americans
compare very favorably with the speed with which European immigrants gained English fluency
The point Stark wants to make in comparing African American migration from the rural south with the experience of foreign immigrants is that
compared to the economic and social progress made by immigrants, African Americans have made rapid strides towards equality
Although discrimination continues to play a role, a major factor that explains the large income gap between African American and white families as a whole is
the much greater prevalence of female-headed households in the African American community
According to research summarized by Stark, which of the following statements is not true?
a. Surveys show that prejudice against African Americans has declined very substantially
b. Large majorities of both African Americans and whites report interracial friendships, and interracial marriages have been increasing rapidly
*** c. White sports fans do not support teams dominated by African American players
d. Prejudice declined most rapidly in the south
Stark suggests that compared to other groups, barriers to progress by African Americans have included
a. being a large enough group to constitute a potential threat to others
b. having more visible identifying traits
c. being the object of harsher prejudice and discrimination in the past
d. ALL ***
e. not having a clear homeland to return to or to protect them
In his conclusion, Stark reiterates the conviction of most sociologists that the key to intergroup conflict is
status inequality
(CH 12 - Gender & Inequality)

The "Gender Power Ratio" developed by social scientists at the United Nations shows that
there is a rough positive, but imperfect, correlation between economic development and greater gender equality.
In this chapter, Stark draws on the work of Marcia Guttentag and Paul Secord to argue the case for the importance of one particular type of social structure in shaping the relationship between men and women. What is it?
the ratio of women to men (sex ratio)
Unbalanced sex ratios may be caused by
a. war
b. female infanticide
c. ALL ***
d. differential diets
e. geographic mobility
Historically and cross-culturally, female infanticide has been
In general, where men greatly outnumber women, women
are treated as valuable property, but without rights of their own
In general, where women greatly outnumber men, women
have greater equality, but are treated as less valuable
The capacity of a member of a two-person group to impose his or her will on the other member is termed
dyadic power
According to the Guttentag/Secord theory, men are in a position to impose elaborate cultures of "traditional" sex roles when
there are more men than women
The Guttentag/Secord theory predicts that major changes in sex roles
will be preceded by changes in sex ratios
According to Stark, the pay gap between full-time working men and women is to a significant degree explained by the fact
a. ALL ***
b. women often make choices on the basis of sex-role socialization that lead them into less highly-paying jobs
c. women tend to change jobs and take more time out from the labor force
d. a larger proportion of working women are younger
Stark argues that many of the problems of the African American family stem from
the shortage of African American men
The growth of female-headed households in the African American community stems from
the 1970s and 80s
In the Mexican American community, men generally outnumber women, largely because of differential immigration. Stark argues that in accordance with the Guttentag/Secord theory, this results in
an emphasis on traditional sex roles
Going back to the distinction between social and cultural theories made in Chapter 2, the theory of gender presented in this chapter is an example of
a social theory
Stark suggests that Guttentag and Secord's pioneering work on sex ratios has implications for research on
a. ALL ***
b. police crime-solving rates
c. religious recruitment
d. the involvement of women in crime
(CH 13 - The Family)

According to Stark, the study of the family has been dominated by the twin themes of
universality and decline
Stark's definition of the family as a universal human institution focuses on
kinship and nurturant socialization of the young
Which of the following family functions are universal?
a. emotional support
b. all of the choices
c. ** NONE of the choices **
d. sexual gratification
e. economic support
What is not a characteristic of life in the traditional European family?
love for young children
The general point Stark is making about the traditional European family is that
there is little point in romanticizing it
The rise of romantic love in marriage has been connected to
a. geographical mobility
b. affluence
c. relative decline in the claims of peer groups
d. ALL ***
One particularly-direct reason why kinship declines in importance with modernization is that
people start having fewer children, and therefore fewer kin
In general, survey research in both the U.S. and Canada indicates that most people
retain strong family ties
The paradox that high levels of divorce today are associated with high levels of marital satisfaction is explained by
the fact that divorce dissolves unhappy marriages
Close to ________ of marriages currently contracted are expected to end in divorce.
Because some people get married and divorced several times, the proportion of Americans who marry who are likely to end up getting divorced is probably more like
In their international comparison of divorce rates, which of the following factors did Trent and South not find to be associated with higher divorce rates?
the proportion of Catholics in a nation's population
Today, close to ______ of births in the United States are to unmarried women.
Which of the following factors has research identified as the factor most strongly correlated with deviant behavior among children?
poor parenting
The research of Gerald Patterson and his associates led them to conclude that anti-social behavior among young children
will continue unless parents use punishment to teach them to act differently
Over ______ of Canadians and Americans who divorce get remarried.
Research on the "empty nest syndrome"
shows that it is largely a myth
Stark concludes that American, Canadian, and Mexican families are ________ in terms of the way they perform the functions typically associated with family life.
about average
(CH 14 - Religion)

Stark observes that it is hard to define religion in a way that is not either too narrow or too broad. A definition of religion that is too broad is likely to
include purely secular belief systems
A definition of religion that is too narrow is likely to
fail to include religions that have a different conception of "god"
Stark concludes that religion cannot be defined only by its providing answers about ultimate meaning; these answers must in some way
posit the existence of the supernatural
The legitimization of norms
is an important social function of religion
Miller and Hoffman argue religiousness is positively associated with
risk aversion
The concept of religious economy suggests that religious organizations act much like
business firms
Unless they are regulated by the state, religious economies will incline towards
The distinction between churches and sects is that
churches intellectualize religious teachings while sects stress emotionalism and experience
Richard Niebuhr's church-sect theory argues that
as sects become more like churches, new sects will emerge
Secularization is defined as
the shift from religious to secular ways of thinking and forms of organization
When Stark concludes that secularization is a self-limiting process, he means that
by its nature it tends to elicit religious revivalism over time
The term sociologists give to new types of religious organizations which operate outside of existing religion is
In general, sects prosper where
religious sentiments are strong
In general, cults prosper where
religious organizations are weak
Analysis of Protestant denominations in the United States show that
a. the more secularized denominations are losing members
b. sect formation is very common
c. ALL ***
d. denominations that are growing tend to be sect-like
The "unchurched belt" in the U.S. refers to
the Far West
In the U.S., cults are most common in
the Far West
People who join cults tend to be
people who grew up in irreligious homes
Internationally, cults are particularly common in
The Protestant explosion in Latin America is primarily attributable to
the rise of a pluralistic religious economy
(CH 15 - Politics & the State)

The "tragedy of the commons" illustrates
how individual self-interest can conflict with the common good
In general, the solution to the "tragedy of the commons" has been
some sort of political control from above
Free riders are
people who benefit from collective activity without contributing to it
To secure public goods such as personal safety and a healthy environment, and to deal with the free rider problem, people must
create organizations capable of coercing themselves
The experimental re-creation of the tragedy of the commons by Messick and Wilke showed that one problem with solutions to the tragedy of the commons
leaders will use their power for personal benefit
The theorist who provided the classic definition of the state as the organization that "claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of force" was
Max Weber
According to Stark, a dominant question in political thought for over 2,000 years has been
how to tame the state
The main distinction between types of states is
elitist vs. pluralist
When Robert Dahl stated that the distinction between dictatorship and democracy "comes much closer to being one between government by a minority and government by minorities," he meant that democracy is based on
shifting coalitions of interest groups
The controversial argument that the U.S. was increasingly dominated by a power elite was put forth in the 1950s by
C. Wright Mills
According to Stark, the view "that no single elite dominates in Western democracies, but neither do 'the people' make most of the decisions" is
the most widely accepted view among sociologists
The man most responsible for the rise of opinion polling was
George Gallup
Less than ______ of U.S. voters voted in the 1996 presidential elections
Research on the under-representation of women in public office in both Canada and the U.S. indicates that
the main problem lies in the recruitment and nomination process, not with the voters
Survey research on people's political views shows that most people
hold seemingly contradictory views on many subjects
Herbert McClosky found that the group that tends to have the most internally-consistent set of political views is
political party elites
The term that is used to identify groups that take an interest in particular political topics is
issue publics
Compared to the system of proportional representation in much of Europe, the geographic system of representation found in Canada and the United States
a. results in parties that resemble each other
b. discourages ideological parties
c. pushes parties towards the middle of the spectrum
d. ALL ***
(CH 16 - Mix of Education & Occupation)

Stark takes up education and occupation in a single chapter because
because the institutions of education and the economy are particularly interdependent
Studies of occupational prestige have found
people rank occupations similarly all over the world
According to Peter Drucker, the key to increased productivity and higher standards of living has been
people working smarter
Which of the following explains the increase of women in the labor force through the 20th century?
a. reduced fertility

b. ALL ***
c. the increase of jobs not requiring muscle power
d. single women's need to support themselves
e. economic pressures on families
The official definition of unemployment includes
Occupational shifts in the U.S. economy have made long-term unemployment particularly a problem for
people with little education
The majority of Americans began to finish high school
in the late 1940s
James Coleman's study found that
school quality did not significant affect student achievement
Coleman concluded that
student achievement is much more shaped by home and community environments than by schools
Barbara Heyns studied the effects of summer as a way of testing
how much learning goes on during the school year
Heyns' basic finding was that most children do learn doing the school year but
a. recreation-oriented summer programs did not affect summer learning for low-income children
b. children from higher-income families continued learning during the summer vacation
c. children from lower-income families lost ground over the summer
d. ALL ***
Studies of student achievement in Catholic and public schools show that
superior student achievement at Catholic schools does not appear to be spurious
Comparative studies show that in general, the poorer the country
the higher the returns to education
Data indicate a ________ correlation between level of education and average annual income in the U.S.
According to Randall Collins, probably the most important link between education and income is
the importance of credentials in securing jobs
John Meyer argues that a major function of education is to
confer a status on graduates that they have for the rest of their life, irregardless of occupation
(CH 17 - Social Change, Devp & Global)

Which of the following is not classified as an internal source of societal change?
The concept of cultural lag suggests that
cultural change tends to lag behind technological change
A particularly important case of diffusion in recent years is
Ecological sources of change include
a. natural disasters
b. climate change
c. droughts
d. ALL ***
All major theories of the rise of the West agree that the critical starting point was
the rise of capitalism
The early sociologist who argued that religious change was an important part of the rise of capitalism was
Max Weber
The fundamental idea behind what Stark calls the "state theory of modernization" is that for capitalism to develop
the state must be tamed first
The perspective that sees the relationship between nations as the key to explaining why some develop and others don't is
dependency and world system theory
The theorist who divides the world system into core, semi-periphery and periphery is
Immanuel Wallerstein
World systems theorists have argued that mechanisms of dependency and underdevelopment include
a. dependence on the export of raw materials
b. profit repatriation to core countries
c. domination by foreign multinational firms
d. ALL ***
According to Stark, quantitative tests of dependency theory hypotheses
do not support dependency/world system theory
In general, income distribution in poor countries is ________ than in rich countries.
more unequal
Life expectancy in the most developed nations is over ________ what it is in the poorest nations.
The concept of "global village" was made popular by
Marshall McLuhan
Many commentators have worried that globalization will bring a culturally homogenous and boring world. According to Stark, many sociologists believe that
a. the nature of the self implies local, not global, construction
b. global communications can be used to exploit differnce
c. local networks are always likely to sustain distinctive cultures
d. ALL ***
(CH 18 - Population Changes)

The Domesday Book was
an early census
The study of population is termed
A population growing at 3% a year will double in size in
23 years
Demographers generally prefer to study the fertility rate rather than the crude birth rate because
the fertility rate focuses on women of child-bearing age
All persons born in a given time period constitute the
birth cohort
Expansive population structures are shaped like
a pyramid
Pyramid-shaped population structures are most characteristic of
developing countries
World population began its first major period of growth with the development of
a. Popul'n fluctuated greatly during the period of agrarian societies cuz of
famine, b.hunting and gathering, c.slavery,d. disease,e. ALL *** f. industrialization,g.war, h.agriculture
Which of the following was not a prediction of Malthusian theory?
a long-term and unchecked population explosion is likely
Today, Malthus is generally associated with a __________ outlook on population growth.
Replacement-level fertility
a. produces zero population growth over time
b. generally involves a fertility rate of slightly over two children
c. ALL ***
d. occurs when the number of births each year equals the number of deaths
The demographic transition involves a shift to
low mortality and low fertility
In the first stage of the demographic transition, population increases rapidly because
mortality declines
Kingsley Davis' theory of the demographic transition argued that
modernization led people to want to have fewer children
The population of the world is about
6 billion
The population explosion in the developing countries that has increased world population so much in the past several decades
has waned, as many countries have gone through the demographic transition
Most of the countries with fertility rates below the replacement level are in
Countries experiencing depopulation today are generally doing so because of
declining fertility rates
The reason why the post-World War II baby boom has such a big impact on U.S. society is that
a. ALL ***
b. the baby boom birth cohort was so large it has had a tremendous impact on society as it has aged
c. the birth rate remained high for twenty years
d.people had larger families during this period than they had either immediately before or since
(CH 19 - Urbanization)

The size of preindustrial cities was limited by
a. disease
b. the small size of the agricultural surplus
c. ALL ***
d. poor transportation
Today, roughly ________ of Americans and Canadians live in urbanized areas.
Preindustrial cities secured food and livestock from nearby farmers mainly by
With the industrialization of agriculture, one American farmer in 1970 could feed _______ people, compared with 7 in 1900.
The proportion of the U.S. population that lives on farms has dropped to less than
According to the U.S. census, a community must have _______ residents to qualify as a city.
Because cities almost always extend into adjacent areas with different local government, the U.S. Census Bureau uses the term ________ to refer to the whole area.
metropolitan area
The distinction between fixed-rail metropolis and freeway metropolis is about
patterns of transportation, land use and growth
Fixed-rail cities
made the center of the city the focal point
Which city is not a fixed-rail metropolis?
Los Angeles
According to Stark, most Americans show a preference for living in
Park and Burgess' theory of ethnic succession was designed to explain
why poor neighborhoods keep changing their ethnic composition over time
The Index of Dissimilarity measures
the level of neighborhood segregation by race in cities
When Farley and Frey analyzed residential integration in metropolitan areas (including suburbs) instead of just in cities, the index of dissimilarity for many areas
increased radically
Farley and Frey found that high levels of racial integration were associated with each of the following factors except for
retirement communities
Ferdinand Tönnies argued that the shift from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft meant
a. from intimate ties to impersonal relationships
b. ALL ***
c. the shift from community to loose association
d. from common identity to lack of common identity
By and large, the view that urbanism is incompatible with intimate communities
has been rejected by most sociologists
The concept of social drift draws attention to
how people with personal problems tend to drift into poor urban neighborhoods
(CH 20 - Organizational Age)

The chapter opens with the observation that formal organizations
are a relatively recent human invention
In which of the following sectors was the crisis of organizational growth not a major impetus to organizational change in the nineteenth century?
The theorist who recognized that the new types of organizations being created constituted a single basic model that could be theoretically described was
Max Weber
What is not a characteristic of bureaucracy, according to Weber?
an identification of the individual person and the position
Subsequent research on bureaucratic organization found evidence of
a. conflict over goals
b. ALL ***
c. goal displacement
d. the importance of informal organization
The ________ approach emphasizes how the interests of human beings in an organization shape its goals and functioning.
natural system
The successful redefinition of the March of Dimes from polio eradication to birth defects is an example of
goal displacement
The limit on the number of people that a given person can supervise effectively is termed the
span of control
The organizational innovation made by Du Pont to deal with the crisis of diversification was
the establishment of autonomous divisions
The proposition that the larger an organization, the greater the proportion of total resources that must be devoted to management functions, was put forth by sociologist
Peter Blau
In reviewing the rational and natural system approaches to the study of organization, Stark concludes that
both approaches are necessary
Research on organizational decentralization finds that forces generated within the ________ often tend back toward recentralization.
natural system
Business theorist Peter Drucker advocates ________ to maximize organizational flexibility.
the smallest possible operating units
The doctrine of letting people in charge of operating units devise their own strategies for meeting negotiated objectives and then be judged in terms of how well they succeed in meeting those objectives is known as
management by objectives
Stark's main conclusion about organizations is that
there is no single form of organization that is best for everything
(CH 21 - Social Change & Movements)

People who organize to bring about or prevent social change are called a
social movement
The collective behavior approach to social movements focuses on
the grievances that lead people to want to bring about change
The resource mobilization perspective
a. tends to take the existence of grievances for granted
b. emphasizes leadership
c. stresses resources and rational strategic planning
d. ALL ***
e. analyzes how social movements define and manipulate grievances
According to Stark, most sociologists who work in this area
feel that the two approaches can be synthesized
The main way people are recruited by social movements is
by networks of attachments
For a social movement to succeed,
a. it must withstand or overcome external opposition
b. it must mobilize people and resources effectively
c. it must enlist external allies or at least keep them neutral
d. ALL ***
The J-curve theory of social crisis refers to
the growing gap between hope and the actual rate of change
Stark's synthesis of collective behavior and resource mobilization propositions suggests that the normal sequence of events at the beginning of a social movement is
grievance, hope, precipitating event
When Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat in 1955,
a. her refusal to budge reflected changes in the mood of the Montgomery African American community
b. she stood at the center of a dense network of attachments
c. ALL ***
d. this was not the first time she had done this
e. she was a prominent leader in the African American community
The social movement in Montgomery made use of the one social institution controlled by African Americans:
In sociological terms, the arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955 constituted a ________ for the Montgomery civil rights movement.
precipitating event
An analysis of the role of churches in the civil rights movement would be most likely to reflect the interests and propositions of
the resource mobilization approach
What ended the Montgomery bus boycott was
the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that Alabama's bus segregation laws were unconstitutional
Doug McAdams' research on Mississippi Freedom Summer volunteers found that the volunteers were
"biographically available"
McAdams' survey of Freedom Summer volunteers twenty years later revealed that
most had been radicalized by their experience and remained politically active

Accrd'ng to Max Weber, authority derived from the understanding that ind'ls have clearly defined rights & duties to uphold & that they implement rules & procedures impersonally is
legal-rational authority
Raw materials are processed & converted into finished goods in which sector of the economy?
The economic growth of the 1980's & 90's resulted in
a growth in the gap between the rich & the poor
In the US, approx. what % of the population lives below the poverty line?
What is true about those living below the poverty line in the US?
Approx. 40% are children.
Who made up the largest number of immigrants to the US in the 1990's?
Compared to the US population in general, Asian Americans ahve
a higher level of formal educ'l achievement
In the world's economic system, what is true about the relationship between high-income countries & low-income countries?
High-income countries build manufacturing plants IN low-income courntries to obain cheap labor.
Sociological studies of gender socialization show that
girls are less likely than boys to receive attention from teachers
The increase in prejudice that sometimes resulted from court-ordered desegregation in public schools is a
latent dysfunction of desegregation
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture is called
In Gesellschaft, people are more likely than in Gemeinschaft to
see others as a means of advancing their own individual goals
Demographic transition theory explains population changes by
linking population changes to technological development
Which theory assumes that deviance occurs among individuals who are blocked from achieving socially approved goals by legitimate means?
Merton's anomie theory
Sandra is female, sheh is African American, and she is 16 yrs of age. You have just been told about 3 of Sandra's?
ascribed statuses
Cooley called a person's self-conception based on the responses of others
the looking-glass self
The philosopher Thomas Hobbes believed that social order developed out of the
desire to escape a state of continuous social conflict
Max Weber's principle of verstehen was meant to
explain the subjective beliefs that motivate people to act
According to sociological terminology, an analysis of the amount of violence in mass media, such at TV shows, would be considered
content analysis
What state has the greatest number of physicians per 100,000 people?
In the past 30 years, the infant mortality rate in the US has
declined among both Black & White people, while remaining twice as high among Black people.
In the US, semiskilled positions held primarily by women,such as waitperson, cashier, & receptionist, are known as
pink-collar occupations
Tamara worked as a waitress for 5 yrs after high school before she went to college. After college she got a job as a sales rep for a pharma'l company. Tamara has experienced what type of mobility?
The concept of "glass ceiling" affecting women in the workforce is best illustrated by what
The barriers that limit career advancement for women
What is an accurate statement regarding patriarchy
It is a form of social organization in which males control most formal & informal power

Sociology is best described as the study of
social interaction
Sociology developed as a seperate discipline in the 19th century in repsonse to
the growth of industrial society
Demographers study what aspects of human populations
growth, distribution, & composition
Deviant behavior is the term used by sociologists to describe behaviors which a group defines as
violating basic norms
Which of the following terms would be most clearly linked with the kind of social life & social interaction found in cites rather than rural communities?
A) Gemeinschaft
B) In-group
C) Groupthink
D) Gesellschaft ******
Regarding theories of deviance, the idea that an ind'l commits deviant acts because he "hangs out w/ with wrong crowd" follows what line of thinking?
cultural association
Jane wants to survey all Jewish men who are registered Republican in the state of New Jersey. Because she cannot interview all of them, the desirable alternative is to
survey a random sample of the total population

A major source of statistical data on the new immigration at the beginning of the 17th century is the
Immigration Report of 1911
A __________ status if fixed and derived primarily through inheritance.
Granovetter observed that
a) strong ties are more effective in exerting influence b)weak ties are more effective in spreading information
Cosmopolitan networks tend to be
large and characterized by low redundancy
Rules of acceptable and unacceptable behavior are examples of
The Amish are a group characterized by a distintive set of beliefs & customs. The Amish are
Begonians are the dominant group in Doberia and Sardonians are expected to conform to the expectations of the Begonians. This is an example of
Stark argues that globalization has been spread primarily through
Zborowski & Herzog discovered that schools were easily maintained in Jewish communities because
Jews lived primarily in towns and cities

As people internalize the beliefs and practices of a group such as a family, they experience
Micro sociology attempts to understand
a)social interaction, b)human exchanges, c)patterns of interaction and exchange, d) ALL ***
According to Mead, the 2 aspects of human identity are
the mind and the self
Male & female voting patterns may differ substantially. A researcher studying this difference will treat gender as a
The 3 criteria of causation are
time order, correlation, and nonspuriousness
Data from Nations of the Globe data source indicates that the fertility rate declines as economic development increases. This is an example of
negative correlation
Asch flipped a coin to determine whether the student respondent would participate with a unanimous group or with a group reflecting partial solidarity. This assignment process followed a procedure known as
Persons who participate in an experiment are known as
When a researcher is observing behavior as it actually takes place within its natural environment, data are being collecting utilizing this research design format
field research
Researcher joins a car theft ring to gain information on how the group steals cars. The ring does not know their new member is a researcher. This is an example of
covert observation

Darley and Atane obversed that a person is more likely to respond in a crisis situation when
the size of the group is small
The Gallop Poll is an example of
Hirschi and Stark analyzed the ass'n between church attendance and delinquency by controlling for gender. They did this to test for
Zablocki initially believed that strong love networks among commune members would
increase the groups stability or solidarity
An inflationary economy may limit the resource opportunities a family may provide for its members. What property of systems does this illustrate?
Societies are not static; they fluctuate and change constantly. This means that societies tend to be __________systems.
A family that is comprised of one adult couple and their children is known as
nuclear family
Many 19th century social evolutionists argued that change is
inevitable and progressive
What sociological prospective maintains that the norms of society are created and maintained by the ruling class?
conflict perspective
In comparative socialogical research, generally the ______ is the unit of analysis.


Sucking responses among infants and their imitation of facial expressions is said to be
In humans 23 chromosomes from the mother combine with ____ from the father
When behavioral geneticists try to demonstrate that a trait is inherited, they need to demonstrate that the trait is
more common among blood related than unrelated
Although the IQ of identical twins are not the same, they may be very similar. This may be due to
the sharing of same genetic structures
Declines in infant mortality in industrial societies has been attributed to
d) ALL *** better sanitation, diet, and health care
According to Stark minority groups in North America have tended to experience success first in the fields of
sports and entertainment
Many early studies assessing the impact of testosterone levels on human behavior were based on
small samples
DNA is a _______ concept
Recent DNA studies confirm that
women are more geographically mobile than men
Lorenz argued that murder is a uniquely human characteristic. This behavior was associated with the belief that
humans became meat eaters in the later stages of the evolutionary process

Skeels and Dye observed that children in an orphanage who had received personal attention from an older mildly retarded girl
showed improvement in IQ scores 4 years later
Overcoming egocentrism is associated with the __________ stage
Researchers studying cognitive development have concluded that approximately ________ adults cannot comprehend abstract concepts and thus rely on literal interpretations of events
A jargon of made up words is known as a/an
Boas argued that adult personality is effected most by
early childhood socialization
Two major sources of anthropological data on non-industrial societies are the
Ethnographic atlas & Standard Cross-Cultural sample
Kohn initially argued that ______ parents encourage their children to please others by conforming to the expectations of others.
lower class
Kohn also observed that as time passes people working in highly structured environments become
less flexile and less self directed
The Standard Cross-cultural sample says that women/girls in non-industrial societies
are trained to assume adult roles earlier than boys

Lombrosco argued that people are born criminals. This is an example of ________ theory of deviance.
Uniform crime report data indicate that arrest rates are higher among people aged
In developing their theory of deviance and self control, Gottfredson and Hirschi maintain that
persons committing deviating acts are risk takers and thrill seekers
The primary focus of this theory of deviance is the creation and maintenance of strong attachments with deviant family members and friends.
differential association theory
The "stake in conformity" is primarily associated with this theory of deviance.
control theory
General social survey data reveal that arrest rates are lowest among
married persons
According to control theorists, the amount of time and energy allocated to acts of conformity is known as
When societies norms are no clear or are no longer followed, a condition of normlessness exists. Durkheim labeled this phenomenon
Social integration measures
the strengh of bonds and attachments

The term "highwaymen" refers to
prison inmates assigned to work on highways
Hechter and Kanawaza maintain that conformity increases when the behavior of members of a group is easily monitered. This illstrates the principle of
Motivation to commit crime, availability of suitable targets & absence of effective guardians are major concepts associated with
the opportunity theory of deviance
The Cambridge-Somerville experiment was an example of
a deliquency prevention program
An "eye for an eye" is an example of
This religious group was the first to introduce prison sentencing in the US as a more humane substitute for execution
Contemporary research on the deterrant effect of capital punishment
has provided mixed support for the deterrant effect
It is estimated that only one in ______ crimes is reported to the police
In the US a person is most likely to be arrested for committing
Present recidivism rates in the US are approaching

In the Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels maintained that human history could be best described as a history of
class struggles
The owners of the means of production are members of the
bourgeoisie (in between the lower & upper classes)
According to Marx, the single most important factor determining rank or social position is
property ownership
In many societies the police are granted the authority to enforce laws. The is an example of
The major determinant of status in the US, Canada, & other highly industrialized countries is
According to Bourdieu's research on culture and social class, what is one thing upper social classes do not stress
meeting basic needs
The concept of the classless society was developed by
Marx argued that in a classless society everyone becomes a
Mosca associates increasing stratification with the development of
political organizations
Functional importance of jobs, a system of unequal rewards & replaceability are key concepts associated primarily with the _______theory of stratification

Stark argues that intergroup conflict is based on
racial and ethnic inequality
The primary ethnic ancestry of US residents of European descent is
Researchers have discovered that prejudice decreases as
income and education increase
The major area of destination for African slaves being brought to the new world was
British North America
When religious differences function as an indicator of an underlying status conflict between two groups, religious differences become
In order to prevent minority group workers from competing with dominant group workers, immigration quotas may be set. This is an example of
Since 1970, Japanese American earnings have
been equal to or higher than white earnings
In this city, African Americans reside in the Northeast, white Hispanic Americans reside primarily in the Southwest. This is an example of
geographic concentration
At the end of the 20th century, _____ were the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority group in the US.
Hispanic Americans
Prior to 1940, the majority of African Americans resided in the
rural South
(CH 1-Groups & Relationships)

From a sociological point of view, a significant point about the Titanic story is that
important social conventions were still observed
One reason that the social sciences developed later than other sciences was that
there was a lack of data to theorize about
Studies by early French statisticians were important in launching sociology because
a. the lack of fluctuations in rates suggested that factors outside the individual were crucial
b. rates of social phenomena were shown to vary in different places
c. rates of social phenomena were shown to be extremely stable
d. ALL ***
The sociologist who proceeded to analyze the early statistics on suicides, and to create a distinctive sociological theory to explain them, was
Emile Durkheim
Which of the following are legitimate units of analysis in sociological research?
a. ALL ***
b. Individuals
c. societies
d. groups
e. states and nations
Which one of the following statements is not one of the reasons Stark gives in explaining the importance of a global perspective in sociology?
People are the same everywhere
What explains something?
Which of the following least qualifies as a group as defined by Stark?
a. six people on a hike together
**b. people waiting for a bus***
c. a couple in love
d. a family
The term sociologists usually use to describe a collection of people who do not form a group is
Which of the following would be least conducive to social network analysis?
a. people in a secondary group
** b. people who are totally unrelated to each other ***
c. people who hate each other
d. people in a primary group
Which of the following is the best example of an unobtrusive measure?
measuring wear-and-tear on museum floor tiles to determine which exhibits attract the most visitors
The purpose of validation research is to
find out if our data accurately measure what we want to know
When Stark says that the essence of the scientific method is systematic skepticism, he means that
scientists take nothing for granted, no matter how obvious
The starting point of the scientific process
When we operationalize a concept, we
define the way we are going to measure it
When sociologists theorize, they specify relationships between
According to Stark, the idea that humans have free will
assumes that people make reasoned choices about their behavior
The early African-American sociologist who called sociology the "science of free will" was
W.E.B. DuBois
According to Stark, the fundamental sociological subject is
the group