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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Depressive Realism
The tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgements, attributions, and predictions.
Explanatory Style
One's habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic, depressive explanatory style attributes failure to stable, global, and internal causes.
Natural Selection
The evolutionary process by which nature selescts traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches.
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Rules for accepted and expected behavior.
Personal Space
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
The characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
The vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes.
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. In laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
Gender Role
A set of behavior expectations (normas) for males and females.
The effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment).
A change in behavior or belief to accord with others.
Acting in accord with a direct order.
The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
Central Route to Persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Sleeper Effect
A delayed impact of a message occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
Having qualities that appeal to an audiences. An appealing communicator is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference.
Cult (also called New Religious Movement)
A group typically characterized by:

1) distinctive ritual and believes related to its devotion to a god or person,

2) isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture,

3) a charismatic leader

[[A sect, by contrast, is a spin-off from a major religion]]
Attitude Inoculation
Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available.
Co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
Social Facilitation
1) Original meaning--the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present.

2) Current meaning--the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others.
Evaluation Apprehension
Concern for how others are evaluating us.
Social Loafing
The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
Free Riders
People who benefit from the group but give little in return.
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.