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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Propinquity Effect (Ch. 10)
The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
Mere Exposure Effect (Ch. 10)
The finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it
Social Exchange Theory (Ch. 10)
The idea that people's feelings about a relationship depend on:
1. their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship
2. their perception of what kind of relationship they deserve
3. their chances for having a better relationship with someone else
Comparison Level (Ch. 10)
People's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to receive in a particular relationship
Comparison Level for Alternatives (Ch. 10)
People's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would recieve in an alternative relationship
Equity Theory (Ch. 10)
The idea that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs expirenced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal
Companionate Love (Ch. 10)
The intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person but do not experience passion or arousal in the person's presence
Passionate Love (Ch. 10)
An intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair
Triangular Theory of Love (Ch. 10)
The idea that different kinds of love consist of varying degrees of three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment
Evolutionary Approach to Love (Ch. 10)
A theory derived from evolutionary biology that holes that men and women are attrated to different characteristics in each other (men are attracted by women's appearance; women are attracted by men's resources) because this maximizes their chances of reproductive success
Evolutionary Psychology (Ch. 10)
The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection
Attachment Styles (Ch. 10)
The expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants
Secure Attachment Style (Ch. 10)
An attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked
Avoidant Attachment Style (Ch. 10)
An attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; people with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships
Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style (Ch. 10)
An attachment style characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety.
Investment Model (Ch. 10)
The theory that people's commitment to a relationship depnds not only on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparision level and their comparision level for alternatives but also on how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
Exchange Relationship (Ch. 10)
Relationships governed by the need for equity (ex: for an equal ratio of rewards and costs)
Communal Relationships (Ch. 10)
Relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs
Prosocial Behavior (Ch. 11)
Any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
Altruism (Ch. 11)
The desire to help another person even it if involves a cost to the helper
Kin Selection (Ch. 11)
The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
Norm of Reciprocity (Ch. 11)
The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future
Empathy (Ch. 11)
The ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions the way that person experiences them
Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis (Ch. 11)
The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
Alturistic Personality (Ch. 11)
The qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations
In-Group (Ch. 11)
The group with which an individual identifies as a member
Out-Group (Ch. 11)
Any group with which an individual does not identify
Negative-State Relief Hypothesis (Ch. 11)
The idea that people help in order to alleviate their won sadness and distress
Urban Overload Hypothesis (Ch. 11)
The theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it
Bystander Effect (Ch. 11)
The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness and emergency, the lesss likely any one of them is to help
Pluralistic Ignorance (Ch. 11)
Bystanders' assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned
Diffusion of Responsibility (Ch. 11)
The phenomenon whereby each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases
Aggression (Ch. 12)
Intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person
Hositle Aggression (Ch. 12)
Aggression stemming form feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain
Instrumental Aggression (Ch. 12)
Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain
Eros (Ch. 12)
The instinct toward life, posited by Freud
Thanatos (Ch. 12)
According to Freud, an instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions
Amygdala (Ch. 12)
An area in the core of the brain that is associated with aggressive behaviors
Serotonin (Ch. 12)
A chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive impulses
Testosterone (Ch. 12)
A hormone associated with aggression
Frustration-Aggression Theory (Ch. 12)
The idea that frustration- the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal- increases the probability of an aggressive response
Aggressive Stimulus (Ch. 12)
An object that is associated with aggressive responses and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression
Social Learning Theory (Ch. 12)
The idea that we learn social behavior by observing others and imitating them
Scripts (Ch. 12)
Ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from our culture
Catharsis (Ch. 12)
The notion that "blowing off steam" -by performing an aggressive act, watching oters engage in aggressive behaviors, or engaging in a fantasy of aggression- relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior
Prejudice (Ch. 13)
A hostile or negative ATTITUDE toward a distinguishable group of people, based soley on their membership in that group
Stereotype (Ch. 13)
A generalization about a group of people in which identical chracteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members (COGNITION)
Discrimination (Ch. 13)
Unjustified negative or harmful BEHAVIOR toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group
Out-Group Homogeneity (Ch. 13)
The perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the memebers of the in-group are
Illusionary Correlation (Ch. 13)
The tendency to see relationships, or correlations, between events that are actually unrelated
Ultimate Attribution Error (Ch. 13)
The tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people
Fundamental Attribution Error (Ch. 13)
To leap to the conclusion that a person's behavior is due to some aspect of his or her personality rather than to some aspect of the situation
Stereotype Threat (Ch. 13)
The apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype
Blaming the Victim (Ch. 13)
The tendancy to blame individuals for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place
Self-Fufilling Prophecy (Ch. 13)
The case whereby people:
1. have an expectation about what another person is like which,
2. influences how they act toward that person, which
3. causes that person to behave in a way consistent with people's original expectation
Realistic Conflict Theory (Ch. 13)
The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination
Scapegoating (Ch. 13)
The tendancy for individuals, when frusterated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
Institutionalized Racism (Ch. 13)
Racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and disrimination are the norm
Institutionalized Sexism (Ch. 13)
Sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
Normative Conformity (Ch. 13)
The tendancy to go along with teh group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance
Modern Racism (Ch. 13)
Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaing prejudiced attitudes
Mutual Interdependence (Ch. 13)
The situation that exists when two ro more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them
Jigsaw Classroom (Ch. 13)
A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in theg roup to learn the course amterial and do will in the class