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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Psychology, Anthropoloogy, Political science, economics, social work
p. 3
Social structure
the organixed pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together constitute society
conclusions are based on careful and systematic observations
examples of social institutions
family, religion, marriage, government, and the economy
social interaction
behavior between two or more people that is given meaning
faith in the ability of human reason to solve societies problems
scientific observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge.
Social Facts
social patterns that are external to individuals. (customs, social values)
understandin social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.
belief in practicality
organic metaphor
perspective that views society as an organism--changing
interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole.
manifest functions
stated and inteded goals of social behavior
Latent functions
unintended consequences of behavior.
Conflict theory
emphasixes the role of coercion and power.
Symbolic Interaction theory
consideres immediate social interaction to be the place where "society" exists.
feminist theory
analyxes the status of women and men in society
exchange theory
argues that the behavior of individuals is determined by the rewards or punishments they recieve as they interact with others.
Rational choice theory
believes that the choices human beings mae are guided by reason
based on the idea that society is no objective--it is found in the words and images that people use to represent behavior and ideas.
systematic information used to investigate research questions
Scientific method
Observation, hypothesis testing, analysis of data and generalization
Replication study
research repeated on a different group
Independent variable
variable that the researcher wants to test
dependent variable
variable on which there is a presumed effect
intervening variables
variables that fall between the independent and dependent variables
something that points to or reflects an abstract concept
the ability to draw conclusions from specific data and be able to apply them to a broader population
Closed/open questionares
closed-fixed answers
open-can elaborate
content analysis
a way of measuring by the cultural artifacts of what people write, say, see, and hear
evaluation research
assesses the effect of policies and programs on people in society.
policy research
research that is intended to produce policy recommendations
market research
evaluates sales potential of some product or service.
complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society
Charicteristics of culture
1.Culture is shared
2.Culture is learned
3.Culture is taken for granted
4.Culture is symbolic
5.Culture varies across time and place
Cultural relativism
idea that something can be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural conext in which it appears.
the set of symbols and rules that provide a complex communication system.
cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation
general standards of behavior adhered to by a group
strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior
written set of guidelines that define right and wrong in society
social Sanctions
mechanisms of social control hat enforce norms
theoretical approach in sociology based on the idea you can discover the normal social order through disrupting it
Shared ideas held collectively by people within a given culture
abstract standards in a society or group that define ideal principles
the habit of seeing things only from the point of view of one's own group
global culture
diffusion of a sigle culture throughout the world
Popular culture
the beliefs, practices, and objects that are part of everyday traditions
Mass media
channels of communication available to wide segments of the population
Reflection hypothesis
contends hat the mass media reflects the values of the general population
cultural hegemony
the pervasive and excessive influence of one culture throughout society
cultural/social capital
the cultural resources that are socally designated as being worthy (knowledge) and that give advanteges to groups possessing such capital
Cultural Lag
the delay in cultrual adjustments to changing social conditions
culture shock
the feeling of disorientation when one encounters a new or rapidly chaged cultural situation
sources of cultural change
1.A change in the societal conditions
2.cultural diffusion
4. the imposition of cultural change by an outside agency
cultural diffusion
transmission of cultural elements from one society or cultural group to another
the process through which people learn the expectations of society
the expected behavior associated with a given status in society
behaviors and assumptions are learned so thoroughly that people no longer question them, but assume they are correct
Social control
the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations
the result of the socialixation experiences we have over a lifetime
Consequences of socialization
1.Establishes self-concepts (identity)
2.Creates the capacity for role-taking
3.creates the tendency for poeple to act in socially acceptable ways
4.makes people bearers of culture
Key concepts of Object relations theory
attachment and indiviualism
Social learning theory
considers the formation of identity to be a learned response to social stimuli
Piaget's stages
1.sensorimotor stage
2.preoperational stage
3.concreate operational stage
4.formal operational stage
Kohlergs moral reasoning sages
1.preconventional stage
2.conventiaonal stage
3.postconventional stage
Conflict theory in socialization
group identity is shaped by inequality in society
functionalist theory in socialization
integrates people into society
symbolic interaction in socialization
people become who they are through their interactions
Looking glass self
perception of how others see us and effect of others' judgemnet on us.
Taking the role of the other
imagining oneself ftom the point of view of another
three stages of childhood socialization
1.imitagion stage stage stage
imitation stage
children copy the behavior of those around them. child begins to see self awareness
play stage
children take on the roles of significant people in their environment
game stage
child becomes capable of taking on a multitude of roles at the same time
generalized other
abstract composite of social roles and social epectations
Socialization agents
those who pass on social expectations
hidden cirriculum
the informal and often subtle messages about social roles that are conveyed through the classroom interaction and classroom materials
life course
the connection between people's personal attributes, the roles they occupy, the life events they experience and the social historical aspects of these events (childhood, youth and adolescence, adulthood, and old age
Age stratification
the heirarchical ranking of different age groups in society
disengagement theory
predicts that as people age, they gradually withdraw from participation in society
the process by which exising social roles are raadically altered or replaced.
characteristics of a group
1.interact and communicate with each other
2.share goals and norms
3."we" feeling
4.face a common threat
Social categories
people lumped together because they share characteristics (age group)
status inconsistency
where the statuses occupied by a person bring with them significantly different amounts of prestige
social construction of reality
the idea that our perception of what is real is determined by the subjective meaning that we attribute to an experience
Impression management
process by which people control how others will perceive them
social exchange model
our interactions are determined by the rewards or punishments that we receive from others
paralinquistic communication
the component of communication tat is conveyed by the pitch and loudness of the speaker's voice, rhythm...
proxemic communication
space between interacting individals
attraction is influence by
.Esposure effect
.physical attractiveness
functions of social institutions
1.the socialization of new members of the society
2.the production and distribution of goods and services
3.replacement of the membership
4.the mainenance of stability and eistence
5.providing the members with an ultimate sense of purpose
Social structure
organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together compose society
mechanical solidarity
when individuals play similar roles (jobs)
organic solidarity
individuals play a variety of roles based on role differentiation (jobs)
form of solidarity (community) - sense of "we" feeling
form of solidarity (society) - generaly characterized by mechanical solidarity
Triadic segregation
the tendency for triads to segregate into a pair and an isolate
expressive needs
intimacy, companionship, and emotional support
Reference groups
groups to which you use as a standard for evaluating your values, attitudes, and behaviors
Attribution theory
the principle that we all make inferences about the personalities of others (what people are really like)
tendency for group members to reach a consensus opinion even if that decision is downright stupid.
characteristics of groupthink
1.An illusion of invulnerability
2.A falsely neegative impression of those who are antagonists to the group's plan
3.discouragement of dissenting opinion illusion of unamity
5.a lack of diversity
risky shift
high risk activity that would not be don alone
normative organizations
people join to pursue goals that they consider worthwile
Coercive organizations
characterized by membership that is largely involutary
Total institution
organization cut off from rest of society
chars. of an ideal bureaucrciy
1.high degree of division of labor and specialization
2.hierarchy of authority
3.rules and regulations
4.Impersonal relationships ladders
Problems of bureaucracies
charicteristics of mcdonaldization