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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
difference between psychology and sociology
psychology - individuals way of thinking and brain
sociology - groups of people as a whole
Natural Science - study of physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change. (psychology)
Social Science - the study of various aspects of human society. (sociology)
macro vs micro sociology
macro: war, distress of Third World nations, poverty, and environmental deprivation,
microsociology: analyses issues such as the role of women, the nature of the family, and immigration.
sociological imagination
the ability to view one’s own society as an outsider would, rather than only from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases EX:
structural - functional theory
affect our values, interactions and actions
ex: police
what are manifest and latent functions?
manifest - conscience deliberate
ex: raindance - produce rain intended
latent - unconscience unintentional
ex: raindance -people gathering that unifies them
absence of personal norms, standards or values, and increased states of psychological normlessness.
conflict theory (i.e. class struggle, haves and have nots)
The theory is mostly applied to explain conflict between social classes,and in ideologies such as capitalism versus socialism.
haves - power (money, information, importance)
have nots - no power
ex: whites in south africa (haves) have power but are minority
blacks are have nots
concept of power under the conflict theory
feminism, ageism, racism, etc are all conflicts over power
basic definitions of symbolic-interactionalism
every situation in day to day life affects our reality and thinking to a degree
ex: experience with 1 teacher will affect outlook on all teachers
main methods of research used by sociologists
questionairs, interviews, observation
what culture is and is not
Culture is language, values, meaning, beliefs, ethnicity;
society refers to a group of people more by location
roles of language and values in a culture
language - passes culture on, body language; comunicates emotions, state of being, and respect
values - statements that people hold to be true; oxymoron values: idea of humanitarianism and "me first" mentality
what is meant by interdependence
cultural integration - change in part of culture that changes other parts of culture
ex: technology leads to change in language (text, AIM language)
cultural lag - our non material culture normally lags behind our material culture
ex: cloning and ethics
define and differentiate subculture and counter culture
subculture - trends and patterns that set apart from major society but NOT against it
counter culture - groups that go against society
ex: KKK, skinheads,
ethnocentrism and cultural relativism
ethnocentrism - biased cultural yard stick
ex: weird way of packing cheese
cultural relativism - more accurate understanding from the individuals culture prospective
culture shock
Disorientation due to the inability to make sense out of one’s surroundings
anything that carries meaning
ex: clothes - boys blue, girls pink
what are norms? folkways, mores and taboos?
norm - rules that dictate what is appropriate, inappropriate; 3 kinds:
folkways - conventions and habits learned from childhood
ex: manners
mores - stricter punishment
taboos - extreme punishment
ex: murder, rape, incest
2 types of sanctions
informal - social norms; folkways
formal - laws; more and taboo
ideal vs. real culture
ideal - how culture should be
real - how it is
cultural diversity
differences in language, clothing, values, morals,
a lot of contact with something and a culture becomes used to it
popular culture
patterns that are widespread
define the "self"
outlook of someone from their own perspective; influenced by responses and interactions with others
socialization -
lifelong process forms self identity based on experiences with people
physical, mental, social skills required to survive in society
3 parts of psychoanalytic theory
id - irrational and emmotional; ruled by pleasure - paint principle
ego - rational; mediator of id and superego
superego - moral; conscience
differences between "I" and "me"
I - self centered, spontaneous, responsive to "me"
me - conformity, predictable, representing to society
ex: 'I' would say go to the party; me would say study
looking glass self
see ourselves how others do; begins at early age and never stops changing unless taken away from all social situations
social learning theory stages as outlined by Piaget
Sensory Motor Period – reflex activity leading to understanding of intentional responses

Preoperational Period – verbalization representation moves from egoistic to social – which is when infants go from ME to more of social conversation

Period of Concrete Operations – evidence for organized, logical thought – concept of consequences

Period of Formal Operations – concrete logical thought moves into the ability for abstract, formal logic (as-if/if-then) – if I do this, that will happen, and how will that affect me
agents of socialization
people or groups pass culture through interacting within social institutions; who has the most influence on your decisions?
family (dont smoke)
peers (start smoking)
education (stopping smoking because you learn about how bad it is for you)
Mead's theory on language and role taking
role taking - take on a role based on who you're around (work role, play role)
language - ability to have internal conversation between 'I' and 'me'
retraining a person to operate in a society they aren't accustomed to
ex: going into military and the reverse of coming out of the military
stages of socialization for adolescents
pre play - different cries different meanings
ex: hungry cry, tired cry
play - one role at a time; cops and robbers; cops good, robbers bad
game - playing multiple roles at same time;seeing different complexities;
ex: good cops and bad cops; good fathers and dead beat fathers
generalized other stage - multiple roles in multiple structures; following norms and values of ones society
differential association, differential reinforcement, and proximity hypothesis
differential association -
differential reinforcement - rewards or punishments for certain behaviors
4 basic elements of structures
Status – any position in the social structure; place in society
ex: brother student employee friend
Role – expectation for how people are to behave in a given status
ex: teachers help people learn
Group – set of people who identify and interact with each other in a structured way based on shared values and goals
ex: students veterans teachers
Institution – a widely accepted, rather stable cluster of statuses, roles and groups that develop around the basic needs of society
ex: education - students, teachers, staff are all apart of
mechanical and organic solidarity
mechanical - less populated societys
organic - modern society's big societys
gemeinschaft and gesellschaft
gemeinschaft - work for group
gesellschaft - work for self
large organizations with heirarchys
ex: governments, military, hospitals, courts, schools
ascrived and achieved statuses
ascribed - given at birth
ex: black white female jew
achieved statuses - done to get the status
ex: college grad
becoming a role
6 basic buraucracy concepts
labor division, heirarchy, impersonality, employment based on technical qualifications, written rules
attribute, behavior, or reputation that makes a person undesirable to others
know differences between role conflict, role strain, role distancing, role exit and role ambiguity
Role strain – consists of the contradictory expectations built into ANY SINGLE STATUS
Role conflict – consists of contradictory roles attached to TWO OR MORE STATUSES
• Ex: going to child’s play in the morning OR going to work
role distancing - disagreeing with an aspect of a role
ex: closed eyes while praying
role exit - ending a role in life
ex: becoming an ex
role ambiguity - role is unclear of what is expected
ex: vague job description
deceptive performances
quality of speech bad, body language is unusual