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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Status
socially defined position in a group or society
Social differentiation
the process by which different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society.
Social Stratification
a relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement insociety by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth.
estate system
the ownership of property and the exercise of power is monopolized by an elite who have total control over societal resources
caste system
one's place in the stratification system is an ascribed status
class system
status partialy determined by achieved statuses
social class
the social structural position a group holds relative to the economic, social, political, and cultural resources of society
life chances
the opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to a particular class
Ideology
belief systems that support status quo
Three dimensions to straification according to Marx
Class
Status
Party
Social mobility
a person's movement over time from one class to another
status attainment
the process by which people end up in a given position in the stratification system
Socioeconomic status
derived from income, occupational prestige and educational attainment
Income
the amount of money a person receives in a given period
prestige
the value others assign to people and groups
occupational prestige
the subjective evaluation that people give to jobs
educational attainment
measured as the total years of formal education
urban underclass
the lowest class
Wealth
the monetary value of eveything one actually owns
class consciousness
the perception that a class structure exists and the feeling of shared identification wih others in one's class
false consciousness
the class consciousness of subordiate classes who have internalized the view of the dominant class
two types of mobility
inter and intra-generational
poverty line
the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household
feminization of poverty
the increasing proportion of the poor who are women and children
culture of poverty
the major causes of poverty are welfare dependancy, the absence of work values and the irresponsibility of the poor
ethnic group
a social category of people who share a common culture.
race
a group treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics,
racialization
a process whereby some social categor, suchas a social class or nationality , takes on what are percieved in society to be racial characteristics.
Racial formation
the process by which a group comes to be defined as a race
out-group homogeneity effect
where all members of any our-group are perceived by an individual to be similar or even identical to eachother
minority group
any distinct group insociety that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prehudice and diescrimination
dominant group
the group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society
stereotype
an oversimplfied set of beliefs about members of a social group or social stratum
salience principle
states that we categorize people on the basis of what appears initially prominen and obvious
stereotype interchangeability
holds that stereotypes, especially negative ones, ae often interchangeable from one social class to another,from one racial or ethnic group to another, from a racial or ethninc group to a social class, or from a social glass to a gender
Prejudice
he evaluation of a social group and individuals wihin that group, based on conceptions about the social group
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's group is superior to all other groups
residential segregation
the spatial separation of racial and ethnic groups into different residential arreas
Racism
the percption and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, or member of that group, as intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to one's own group
forms of racism
overt and subtle
institutional racism
a form of racism is negative treatment and opression of one racial or ethnic group by society's existinginstitutions based on the presumed inferiority of the oppressed group
scapegoat theory
members of the dominant group inthe united States have harbored various frusrations in their desire to achieve social and economic success--vent anger in form of aggression
authoritarian personality
charicterized by a tendency to rigidly categorize other people as well as inclinations to submmit to authority, srictly conform...
assimilation
a process by which a minority becomes socially, economically and culturally absorbed within the dominant society
cContact theory
interaction between Whites minorities will reduce prejudice within both groups
conditions that must be met for contact theory
1.the contac mus be between people of equal status
2.the contact must be sustained
3.scial norms favoring eauality must be agreed upon by the participans
anti-semitism
hatred of Jewish people
domestic colonialism model
describes minorities as like a colony
Segregation
the spatial and social separation of racial and ethnic groups
Affirmative action
race-specific policy for reducing job and educational inequality
Sex
biological identity
gender
the socially learned expectations and behaviors asscoiated with members of each sex
Biological determinism
explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics
Hermaphroditis
a condition where irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed bological sex characterisics
gender socialization
men and women learn the epectations associated with their se
gender identity
one's definition of oneself as a woman or man
Homophobia
the fear and hatred of homosexuals
Gendered institutions
the total patern of gender relations, stereotypical expectations;interpersonal relationships;and the different placement of men and women in social, economic, and political hierarchies of institutions.
Gender stratification
the heirarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender
gender apartheid
the extreme segregation and exclusion of women from public life
Sexism
an ideology that defines women as different from and inferior to men
Patriarchy
a society or group in which men have power over women
matriarchy
a society or group in which women have power over men
Labor force participation rate
the percentage of those in a given categorywho are employed by either part time or full time.
human capital theory
the result of differences in the individual characteristics that worders bringto jobs
dual labor market thory
contends that women and men earn different amounts because they tend to work in different segments of the labor market
occupational segregation
a pattern in which different groups of workers are separtated intodifferent occupations
Gender segregation
the distribution of men and women in different jobs in the labor force
Discriminaion
practices that single out some groups for different and unequal treatment
Feminism
refers to advocating a mre just society for women
Feminist theory
refers to analyses that seek to understand the position of women en society for the explicit purpose of inprobing their position in socity.
Liberal Feminism
argues that inequality for women originates in traditions of the past that pose barriers to women's advancement
Social feminism
interprets the origins of women's oppression in the system of capitalism
Radical feminism
interprets patriarchy as the primary cause of women's oppression
multiracial feminism
evolves from studies pointing out that earlier forms of feminist thinging excluded women of color from analysis
Comparable Worth
the principle of paying women and men equibalent wages for jobs inveolving similar levels of skill
sexual scripts
teach us what is appropriate sexual behabior for each gender
sexual politics
the link between sexuality and power, not just within individual relationships
social construction perspective
interprets sexual identity as learned not inborne
Sexual orientation
how individuals experience sexual arousal and pleasure
compulsory heterosexuality
the idea that heterosexual identity is not a chouice but an expectation
Coming out
the process of defining oueself as gay or lesbian
Queer theory
interprets various dimensions of seuality as thoroughly social and constructed through institustional practices
Homophoba
the fear and hatred of homosexuality
Heterosexism
the institutionalization of heterosexuality as the only socially legitimate sexual orientation
Eugenics
sought to apply scientific principles of genetic selection to "improve" the offspring of the juman race
Sexual revolution
the widespread changes in men's and women's roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of social development
Altruistic suicide
Too high social integration causes suicide
Egoist Suicide
Low social integration causes suiide
Anomic suicide
Social change can cause suicide (social integration regular)
Hirshi's Social control theory
deviance occurs when a person's attachment to social bonds is weakened