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8 Cards in this Set

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Describe the 6 main functions of the skeletal system
1/ support - structural framework
2/ protection - protects the most important internal organs from injury ie cranial bones protect brain, vertebrae protect spinal cord
3/ assistance in movt - most skeletal muscles attach to bones and when they contract to produce movt
4/ mineral homoeostasis - stores minerals - esp calcium and phosphorous - can distrubute these minerals into the blood to maintain balance
5/ blood cell production - red bone marrow produces RBC/WBC and platelets
6/ triglyceride storage - yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose tissue which stores triglycerides
What 6 types of tissue make up the skeletal system?
1/bone or osseous tissue
3/dense connective tissue
5/adipose tissue
6/nervous tissue
list the 7 major parts of a long bone
1. Diaphysis – shaft or body. Long and cylindrical
2. Epiphysis – the distal or proximal parts of the bone
3. Metaphysis – where the diaphysis and epiphysis join.
4. The articular cartilage – is a thin hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis where the bone articulates with another bone
5. The periosteum – a tough sheath of dense connective tissue that covers the bone surface where there is no articular cartilage. It protects the bones, assists in fracture repair, helps nourish bone tissue.
6. The medullary cavity (or marrow cavity) is the space within the diaphysis that contains the yellow bone marrow in adults.
7. The endosteum – a thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity.
What does the metaphysis consist of
epiphyseal plate - a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis to grow in length
when a bone stops growing the plate ossefies and becomes known as epiphyseal line
what 5 types of cells are present in bone tissue
1/ osteogenic cells - unspecialised cells that can become either osteoblasts or osteoclasts
2/ osteoblasts - bone building cells
3/ osteocytes - mature bone cells - maintain daily metabolism - exchange of nutrients and waste with the blood.
4/ osteoclasts - the breakdown or resorption of bone
5/ Bone lining cells
These are made from osteoblasts along the surface of most bones in an adult. Bone-lining cells are thought to regulate the movement of calcium and phosphate into and out of the bone.
overall, what % of bone is compact vs spongy
80% compact
20% spongy
describe compact bone
include osteons (haversian systems)
within the osteons are central canals that carry nerves, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. These canals are connected with the outer surface by perforating canals
provides protection and support
makes up the bulk of the diaphysis
describe spongy bone
contain trabeculae (lattice like)
forms most of the epiphysis
contains red bone marrow