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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Goal of Linguistics
to explain precisely how languages are structured and used
Ambiguous
term used to characterize an expression that can be interpreted in more than one way as a consequence of having more than one constituent structure, or more than one referential meaning
Constituent Structure
linear and hierarchical organization of the words of a sentence into syntactic units
Referential Meaning
The meaning that an expression has by virtue of its ability to refer to an entity; referential meaning is contrasted with social meaning and affective meaning and is sometimes called denotation
Expression
Any bit of spoken, written, or signed language; the audible or bisible aspect of language use that conveys particular context in a given context
Social Meaning
Information that linguistic expressions convey about the social characteristics of their producers and of the situation in which they are produced; together with affective meaning, social meaning is sometimes called connotation
Affective Meaning
Information conveyed about the attitudes and emotions of the language user toward the content or context of their expression; together with social meaning, affective meaning is sometimes called connotation
Linguistic Meaning
Made up of Referential, Social, and Affective Meaning
Content Words
A word whose primary function is to describe entities, ideas, qualities, and states of being in the world. Nouns, verbs, adj, and adv. are content words. Content words are contrasted with function words
Function Words
Words such as detterminers and conjunctions whose primary role is to mark grammatical relationships between content words or structures such as phrases and clauses
Utterance
Expression produced in a particular context with a particular intention
Pragmatics
The branch of linguistics that studies language use, in particular the relationship among syntax, semantics, and interpretation in light of the context of situation
Semantics
Branch of linguistics that examines word and sentence meaning while gererally ignoring context
Lexical Items
A unit in the lexicon; the notion of lexical item includes all inflected forms; thus, child, child's, children, and children's constitute the lexical item child
Lexical Semantics
Branch of semantics that deals with word meaning
Semantic Fields
A set of words with an identifiable semantic affinity ex. angry, sad, happy, exuberant, depressed
Hyonymy
The term used for the state of having identical expression but different meanings (book a flight/buy a book) homophonous is sometimes used with the related sense of sounding alike but not necessarily having the same written form or meaning
homophony
term used in semantic analysis to refer to words that are pronounced alike but have different meanings, as in: two, to, too
Hyponym
A term whose referent is included in the referent of another term. Ex. blue, is a hyponym of color
Referent
Real-world entity (person, object, notion, situation) referred to by a linguistic expression.
Superordinate
less marked referent ex. color is the superordinate of blue
Part/Whole Relationships
the referent of the first term is part of the referent of the second term: hand/arm...the hand is not a type of arm, so it is not a hyponym
Synonymous
We can say that term A is synonymous with term B if every referent of A is a referent of B and vice-versa
Antonymy
Terms A and B are antonyms if, when A describes a referent, B cannot describe the same referent, and vice-versa...in the same context
Converseness
Characterizes a reciprocal semantic relationship between pairs of words.
A is the husband of B, then B is the wife of A and vice-versa
Polysemy
term used to refer to multiple related meanings for a given word or sentence; a wordwith more than one meaning is said to be polysemic
Modality
Grammatical category of verbs marking speakers' attitudes toward the status of their assertions as factual (indicative), hypothetical (subjective), and so on; also called mood.
Tense
Category of the verb that marks time reference, for example past or present
Reference
Semantic category through which language provides information about the relationoship between noun phrases and their referents
Deixis
The marking of the orientation or position of entities and situations with respect to certain points of reference such as the place (here/there) and time (now/then) of utterence
Personal Deixis
Pronouns I, you, and we along with she, he, it and they are markers of personal Deixis.
Spatial Deixis
Marking of the orientation or position in space of the referent of a linguistic expression. Usually expressed by demonstratives (this, that) and adv. (here, there)
Temporal Deixis
orientation or position of the referent of actions and events in time.
Aspect
Grammatical category of verbs, marking the way in which a situation described by the verb takes place in time, for example, as continuous, repetitive, or instantaneous
Textual Deixis
The orientation of an utterance with respect to other utterances in a string of utterances
Agent
Responsible initiator of an action
Patient
entity that undergoes a certaini change of state
Experiencers
That which receives a sensory input
Instruments
intermediary through which an agent performs the action
Causes
any natural force that brings about a change of state
Recipients
that which receives a physical object
Benefactives
That for which an action is performed
Locatives
The location of an action or state
Temporals
The time at which the action or state occurred