Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the "Principle of Superposition"?
layers of sediment are deposited sequentially or continually by gravity such that material is deposited above the previous layer (like reading history book)
What are the four types of marine sediments, and from where are they derived?
lithogenous: derived from physical and chemical weathering of continental rocks

biogenous: derived from organisms living in oceans

cosmogenous: derived from outer space

hydrogenous: derived through chemical precipitation
What is the main component of lithogenous sediment, and what is it made of?
Granite: Quartz + Feldspars
What is the breakdown of lithogenous sediments from coursest to finest?
rock fragments, quartz sand, quartz silt, clay, volcanic ash
what creates poorly sorted lithogenous sediment when transported, and what creates well-sorted sediment?
poorly sorted: carried by glacier/left behind when glacier melts

well-sorted: winds (can only pick up a certain sized particle)
What is the difference between neritic and pelagic deposits?
Neritic deposits are found along continental margins and near islands.
Pelagic deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins.
What are some examples of lithogenous neritic deposits?
beach deposits, continental shelf deposits, turbidite deposits, and glacial deposits
What are "relict deposits"?
sediments that cover the continental shelf that were deposited 3000-7000 years ago and have not yet been covered by more recent deposits since the end of the ice age caused the sea level to rise
what are turbidite deposits and what is the name of their characteristic layering?
they are underwater avalanches that periodically move down the continental slopes and carve submarine canyons (& constitute continental rise)

"graded bedding"
What is the process called by which glacial deposits are forming around Antarctica and Greenland?
ice rafting (icebergs break away from coastal glaciers and carry trapped rock particles out into the ocean where they settle when the iceberg melts)
What are 5 different ways lithogenous sediment enters the oceans, and where do they primarily cause deposits?
river runoff (coastlines), wind (centers of ocean basins), glaciers (centers of ocean basins), gravity (coastlines)
What is the primary source of fine lithogenous sediments transported by the Trade Winds across the ocean?
Saharan Africa
Rivers from what country carry a LOT of lithogenous sediment discharge to deltas and why?
Asian rivers b/c of the huge amount of erosion caused by the rising of the Himilayan mountains
Silica will dissolve slowly unless...
it is covered by more sediment and isolated from water
Carbonate dissolves at ___ pressure and ___ temperature
high pressure & cold temperature, and is best preserved on ridges where it does not fall into the corrosive bottom waters (mid-ocean ridges are ideal)
In temperate latitudes beach sand is mostly ___, and in tropical latitudes beach sand is made up of mostly ____
temperate latitudes = quartz
tropical latitudes = corals and shells (calcium carbonate)
as depth increases, ___ sediment decreases (biogenous)
CaCo3 (calcium carbonate)
what is the lysocline?
the depth at which calcium carbonate begins being dissolved in the ocean
what is the calcite compensation depth (CCD)?
the depth below which calcium carbonate dissolves too rapidly to survive
what factors control the amount and proportion of biogenous sediment that accumulates?
areas of high biological productivity have greater amouts of biogenous sediment, and the proportion of silica and calcium carbonate sediments is determined by the depth at which the sediment accumulates and how rapidly it accumulates
where do you find cosmogenous sediments?
in areas of low productivity where there are not many other sediments
what mostly composes cosmogenous sediments?
micrometeorites from outer space (silica/iron and nickel)
where can hydrogenous sediments be found?
where other sediments will not bury them so they can grow (areas of low productivity)
what are some types of hydrogenous sediment?
manganese nodules, phosphates, carbonates (oolites), metal sulfides (hydrothermal vents), and evaporites (salts)
siliceous ooze forms mostly in ___ water, and calcereous ooze forms mostly in ___ water
silica = cold water (upwelling)
calcium carbonate = warm water
What are the 4 ingredients of hydrogenous sediment?
manganese, cobalt, nickel, iron
What is the latent heat of vaporization and melting?
latent heat of vaporization = 540 cal/g/degrees Celsius

latent heat of melting = 80 cal/g/degrees Celsius
What factors control the density of seawater?
temperature (colder = more dense), salinity (saltier = more dense) and pressure (more pressure = more dense)
What are the six main properties of water?
1. Good Solvent
2. Surface Tension
3. High Heat Capacity
4. High Latent Heats of Melting and Vaporization
5. High Boiling & Melting Points
6. Liquid is more dense than solid
energy is ___ when hydrogen bonds are broken and energy is ___ when hydrogen bonds are made
broken = energy used
made - energy released
What is the temperature at which seawater reaches a max density, and why is this important?
4 degrees allows organisms to survive in the mud when lakes freeze
the freezing temperature of water goes ___ as the water gets saltier
pure water is an _____
when ice is formed, the salinity of the remaining seawater and the density both _______
salinity and density both incease
What 6 ions are dissolved in seawater?
Cl-, Na+, SO4 2-, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+
what percent/parts per mil of seawater is dissolved salts?
3.5% or 35 0/00 (parts per mil)
ions are added to ocean water by...
river discharge, volcanic eruptions, hydrothermal activity (@ mid-ocean ridge)
ions are removed from ocean water by...
absorption & precipitation, sea spray, biologic processes, hydrothermal activity (@ mid-ocean ridge)
What is the source of the 6 ions in seawater?
Cl- = volcanic gases
Na+ = rivers
Mg 2+ = rivers/seafloor
SO4 2- = volcanic gases
Ca 2+ = rivers/seafloor
K+ = rivers
What is the sink of the 6 ions in seawater?
Cl- = salt deposits/evaporites
Na+ = salt deposits
Mg 2+ = stored in seafloor minerals (hydrothermal process)
SO4 2- = stored in seafloor minerals
Ca 2+ = stored in seafloor minerals/shells of dead things
K+ = absorbed in clays/fecal pellets
How does temperature affect gas dissolution?
warmer temperature = more dissolution
where is the ocean most and least saline?
least = near river (estuaries)
most = closed/restricted seas (Red Sea) & center of north and south atlantic oceans
What 4 gases are dissolved in seawater?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, ARgon, Carbon Dioxide
What is the difference in the surface salinity in high and low latitudes?
high latitudes = more runoff and lower salinity/cold fresher water sits above cold saltier water (stable density stratification)

low latitudes: more evaporation & high surface salinity/warm salty water sits above cold fresher water (overturns)
What are the 2 sources of oxygen in the oceans, and which is greater?
photosynthesis (main source) & stirring/spray from atmosphere
Ocean PH is buffered by ___ and ____
CO2 (source = respiration) and dissolution (raises) & precipitation (lowers) of carbonic acid
What is the range of the PH of the ocean?
Where does the dissolved nitrogen in seawater come from?
air-sea interaction
Which gases are saturated in seawater?
oxygen and nitrogen (at least at surface)
What processes cause salinity to increase and decrease?
increase: sea ice forming & evaporation
decrease: precipitation, runoff, icebergs melting, or sea ice melting
What is the difference between a pycnocline, a halocline, and a thermocline?
pycnocline = layer of rapidly changing density
halocline = layer of rapidly changing salinity
thermocline = layer of rapidly changing temperature
In lower latitudes density is usually __ at the surface, and at higher latitudes density is usually ____ at the surface.
higher latitudes = high at surface
lower latitudes = low at surface
What is the average temperature of the ocean?
2 degrees Celsius
How do you recognize parcels of water?
temperature amd salinity
What are the 3 layers of the ocean and how deep are they?
Surface Mixed Layer (100-500 meters)
Pycnocline (down to 1000 meters)
Deep Zone (5000 meters)
where does the water in the deep zone come from, and what is its oxygen concentration?
polar oceans, relatively high O2 concentration
What is the composition of dry air?
Nitrogen 78.1%
Oxygen 20.9%
Argon 0.9%
Carbon Dioxide 0.037%
What are the 5 areas of the atmosphere, top to bottom?
Ozone Layer
Why does the higher temp of the troposphere, which decreases with altitude, initiate winds?
convection cell - warm air rises and cool air sinks
where warm air rises is a __ pressure zone and where cold air sinks is a ___ pressure zone
rises = low-pressure
sinks = high-pressure
Why is there more energy at the equator?
more energy is falling on a given area and a greater percent is absorbed
the longer the distance the ___ the Coriolis effect
ideally, there are ___ convection cells per hemisphere
is the sinking air from the poles moist or dry?
dry - the poles are deserts
the Coriolis effect changes only the ___ of a moving object, never its ___
changes direction, never speed/velocity
the coriolis effect is ___ are the equator and ____ with increases latitude
What are the characteristics (temp/precip/humidity/winds/clouds) of the major climactic zones: equatorial, subtropical, subpolar:
Equatorial: high temperature, high precipitation, low pressure, cloudy

Subtropical: cold temperature, high pressure, sunny

Subpolar: high temperature, low pressure
What are the climate conditions at the doldrums?
high temp, high precip, cloudy
climate conditions at horse latitudes?
high pressure, clean, dry, fair conditions (sinking air)
climate conditions at polar front?
cloudy, stormy, precipitation, low pressure (rising air)
What 3 factors complicate the circulation cells?
1. seasonal heating change
2. unequal heating of land and water
3. unequal distribution of land and water
during the day there is a cool breeze from the ___ to the ___
sea to land
during the night there is a cool breeze from the ___ to the ___
land to sea
rainfall along a __ front is heavier than rainfall along a ___ front
cold front / warm front
what is a snowpack and how thick is it?
it's the first year ice formation (2-4 meters)
how thick are ice ridges?
10-15 meters thick
what are ice bergs?
large glaciers formed on land that flow to ocean and calve off
ice that is held fast to the shore is called ___
fast ice
when seawater freezes, the water left behind...
is colder and saltier
What are the 3 conditions necessary to create a hurricane?
1. high evaporation
2. Coriolis effect (makes them spin-maintenance and development)
3. warm water (above 26 degrees Celsius)
what factor inhibits hurricanes?
wind shear
where do hurricanes form?
at low-pressure belts, like the equatorial belt where they pick up heat energy from the warm ocean
what causes the greatest damage from hurricanes?
storm surge - masses of high water slamming into shore
How does the greenhouse effect work?
visible light comes in but infrared light doesn't come out (trapped in greenhouse gases)
What are the greenhouse gases and their sources?
Carbon Dioxide (combustion, respiration), CH4 (methane - termites, rice paddies, bovine flatulence), O3 (tropospheric ozone), and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC - refrigerants)
What is a polynya?
areas of open water surrounded by sea ice
what drives surface currents and what drives deep ocean currents?
surface currents: wind
deep ocean currents: thermohaline circulation driven by sinking and rising of sea water
What happens in the center of subtropical gyres?
surface water piles up and downwelling occurs
what is the difference between western and eastern boundary currents in subtropical gyres?
western boundary currents are narrow, strong and deep

eastern boundary currents are wide, weak and shallow
what causes Equatorial upwelling?