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36 Cards in this Set

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What is a physical change? Give one example.
physical change- change in shape, size, state of matter EX: breaking a twig
What is a chemical change?
Give on example.
chemical change- change that produces new substances
EX: burning a twig
Explain the difference between a chemical property and a physical property. Give one example of each.
physical property- can be observed without changing what the object is made of EX: texture
chemical property- can only be observed by causing a reaction/changing what the substance is made of EX: flammability
Which state of matter has a definite volume and a definite shape?
solids
What is the process of changing a liquid to a solid?
freezing
Describe what happens to the molecules in the water when it changes from a liquid to a gas.
molecules move faster and farther apart because energy (heat) was taken away
Describe what happens to the molecules in water when it changes from a liquid to a solid.
molecules move slower and closer together because energy (heat) was taken away
Define matter.
matter is anything that has mass and takes up space
Define energy.
the ability to do work or to cause change
Define energy conversion.
a change from one form of energy to another
State the Law of Conservation of Energy.
energy cannot be created or destroyed. the total amount of energy never changes
You digest food to regulate your body temperature. Describe the energy conversion that has taken place.
chemical enery in food is converted to thermal energy as heat
Define kinetic energy.
kinetic energy- the energy of motion
Whenever an every conversion takes place, some energy is always lost to ______ energy.
thermal energy
What type of energy is stored in a stretched rubber band?
(elastic) potential energy
Give 3 examples of fossil fuels.
coal, oil, natural gas
What are 2 energy conversions that take place in a battery-powered flashlight?
chemical energy (battery) to electrical energy; electrical energy to electromagnetic energy (light)
Are fossil fuels renewable or nonrenewable? Why?
nonrenewable- they take hundreds of million of years to form
Give three examples of renewable resources.
solar, hydroelectric, win, geothermal, biomass
Describe the differences in nuclear fusion and nuclear fission.
fusion- atoms are joined together, produces much energy; fission- atoms are split, produces less energy
What is one advantage of using solar energy?
solar energy will not run our for billions of years
What energy conversions take place in a hydroelectric power plant?
kinetic energy (flowing water) to kinetic energy in the turbine to electrical energy
What energy conversions take place in a wind power plant?
kinetic energy (moving air) to kinetic energy in the turbine to electrical energy
Define motion.
motion- when the distance from a reference point changes
How do you know when an object is in motion?
an object is an motion when its postition changes relative to a reference point
Define reference point.
reference point- a place or object used for comparison to determine if an object is in motion; we assume that the reference point is standing still
What is the formula for speed?
speed=distance divided by time
What is the speed of a monkey who goes 10 kilometers in 2 hours on his unicycle?
speed= distance divided by time; speed= 10 km divided by 2 hours; speed=5km/h
When the speed of an object does not change, then it is traveling at a ____speed.
constant speed
On a graph showing an object's speed, which variable would you label the x-axis and the y-axis?
x-axis=time; y-axis= distance
On a motion graph (distance vs. time), what does a straight, horizontal line represent? What does a straight diagonal line represent?
straight, horizontal line= object is not moving; straight diagonal line= constant speed
Define force.
force- a push or pull on an object
What are balanced forces? Unbalanced?
balanced forces- equal forces acting on an object that do not change the motion; unbalanced- unequal forces that change an object's motion
Describe two forces that you encounter every day. (gravitational force, friction, contact force, magnetic force...)
gravitational force- the pull of very massice objects (Earth, moon) toward their center; friction- pushes in the opposite direction of motion between 2 touching surfaces; contact force- push when 2 objects are touching; magnetic force- push or pull between magnetic objects
What are 2 differences between continental and oceanic crust?
continental- thick and less dense; oceanic- thinner and more dense
What land formation will be created when two continental plates collide?
mountain range