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32 Cards in this Set

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Cooper and Rosenthal's findings when comparing the meta-analysis with the traditional literature review?
MORE ARE WILLING TO REJECT THE NULL, USING METATO EVALUATE RSEARCH MAY LEAD TO REDUCTION IN TYPE 2 ERRORS.
What are the different types of sampling in terms of behavior in observational studies?
TIME-
INDIVIDUAL-ONE SUBJECT, OVER TIME PERIOD REC. BEHAV, THEN MOVE ON TO NEXT SUBJECTS
EVENT-REC. ONE BEHAV,ALL INSTANCES OF THAT BEHAV
Design,frequency,
Cohen's Kappa is used to
MORE POPULAR METHOD USED TO ASSESS INTERRATER RELIABILITY
.70> IS BEST
STATISTICAL FORMULA USED TO EVALUATE THE POSSIBILITY THAT AN AMOUNT OF INTERRATER AGREEMENT MAY BE DUE TO CHANCE
4. A disadvantage of archival research is that
-GAINING ACCESS(SPECIAL PERMISSION)
-OUTDATED
5. What does the text list as an advantage of recording behavior (for example, videotaping)? –
u can revaluate over and over
Freud's famous study of Little Hans is an example of
–case studies/case histories
7. Understand how to engage in an observational nonexperimental study.-
--watching, just watching not participating
8. Understand content analysis and how you would conduct one.--

9. Understand metanalyses-
NON-EXP. RESEARCH TECHNIQUE USED TO ANALYSE WRITTEN/SPOKEN RECORDS, FOR OCURRENCES OF SPECIFIC CATEGORIES OF EVENTS.


--TOOL FOR COMPARING RESULTS ACROSS STUDIES
(STAT-BASED METHOD OF COMPARING OR COMBINING RESULTS FROM DIFF RELATED STUDIES)
10. Why is percent agreement not always the best choice in terms of interrater reliability?
-IT ONLY GIVES A RAW ESTIMATE OF INTERRATER AGREEMENT. AND COULD UNDERASTIMATE OR OVER ESTIMATE INTERRATER AGREEMENT.
11. According to the text, an advantage of recording behavior sequences is that
IT CAN BE EVALUATED AND REVALUATED BECAUSE IT IS A RECORDING.
12. The advantage of restricted items over open-ended items is that
BECAUSE RESTRICTED ITEMS CONTROL THE RANGE OF RESPONSES, THE RESPONSES ARE EASIER TO SUMMARIZE AND ANALYZE
13. When determining a sample size needed for a valid survey, you must take into account the
AMOUNT OF ACCEPTABLE ERROR
-EXPECTED MAGNITUDE OF THE POPULATION PROPORTIONS
14. What significantly increase(s) the rate of return of mail surveys?
-WHEN PARTICIPANTS ARE GIVEN A LITTLE TOKEN OR GIFT OF SOME SORT.
15. Using test–retest reliability to assess the reliability of a questionnaire is especially problematic if
UR MEASURING IDEAS THAT FLUNCTUATE WITH TIME.
-QUESTIONNAIRES ARE LONG AND BORING
-ASKING ABOUT ISSUES THAT INDIVIDUALS ARE LIKELY TO REMEMBER THE ANWSER FROM THE FIRST TESTING.
16. What is a Likert scale?
-WIDELY USED IN ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT RESEARCH.
-SERIES OF STATEMENTS, PARTICIPANT INDICATES DEGREES OF AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT
(STRONGLY AGREE TO STRONGLY DISAGREE.
17. Open ended vs. close ended items.
OPEN ENDED ITEMS ALLOW RESPONDANT TO REPLY IN OWN WORDS,CLOSE ENDED ITEMS ALLOW ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER OF SPECIFIC RESPONSE ALTERNATIVES.
18. Interviews (structured vs. semi structured vs. no structure)
-STRUCTURED U ASK PREPARED QUESTIONS, ( ALL PARTIC. ASKED THE SAME QUESTIONS, ELIMINATING SOM FLUNCTUATIONS IN DATA, BUT INFLEXIBLE)
--IN AN UNSTRUCTURED U HAVE A GENERAL IDEA OF ISSUE TO DISCUSS(GAIN MORE COMPLETE INFO, HOWEVER RESPONSES MAY BE DIFFICULT TO CODE AND ANALYZE)
19. Split half reliability on a questionnaire
CAN REDUCE, UNDERESTIMATE RELIABILITY.
--UNCLEAR HOW SPLITTING SHOULD BE DONE
-BEST TO APPLY KUDER FORMULA (KR20)SCORE OF.75=MODERATE RELIABILITY.
FOR LIKERT TESTS USE THE COEFFICIENT ALPHA FORMULA
20. Understand the different types of sampling
SIMPLE RANDOM-RANDOMLY SELECTING A CERTAIN NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS FROM THE POP.
STRATIFIED-DIVIDE POPULATION, SELECT RANDOM SAMPLE FROM EACH DIVISION
PROPORTIOATE-ONLY THE PROPORTIONS OR PEOPLE ARE RELECTED IN THE SAMPLE.
CLUSTER-IDENTIFY NATURALLY POCURRING GROUPS/DEPARTMENTS THEN SURVEY RANDOM CLUSTERS.
SYSTEMATIC-SAMPLING EVERY K ELEMENT AFTER A RANDOM START.
21. Understand the different types of reliability
TEST-RETEST=ADMINISTER,ALLOW TIME RELAPSE, ADMINISTER SAME OR SIMILAR
SPLIT-HALF=SPLIT QUESTIONNAIRE INTO EQUAL HALF, THEN DERIVING SCORE FROM EACH HALF.
22. The role of the interviewer in face to face and telephone surveys
INTERVIEWER TALKS TO THE PARTICIPANT DIRECTLY AND ASK'S A SERIES OF QUESTIONS
22. Understand wording of survey items.
-USE SIMPLE WORDS
QUESTIONS SHOULD BE SHORT AND EASY TO UNDERSTAND
AVOID "CHECK ALL THAT APPLY" ITEMS
AVOID VAGUE QUESTIONS
SOFTEN IMPACT OF SENSITIVE QUESTIONS.
PLACE THEM AT THE END,
23. Including a small token of your appreciation with a mailed questionnaire (for example, a quarter or a pencil) has been found to
PROUCE BETTER ESULTS AND INCREASE THE NUMBER OF REPONDENTS
24. Counterbalanced designs are effective in reducing carryover effects in within-subjects designs if
counterbalancing-assign various treatments in diff. order for diff. subjects.

if the magnitude of the carryover effect is equal for the different orders of treatment.
u distribute carryover effects equally across treatments
26. Understand the following designs
27. A) within-subjects between-subjects
single subject
matched pairs
WITHIN-SINGLE GROUP OF SUBJECTS EXPOSED TO all levels of your independant variable.
Between-diff. groups of subjects randomly assigne to the levels of your independant variable
single- similar to within
matched pair-equivslent to randomized 2 group design
28. Understand the following:
29. A) Error variance –no matter what people are diff. B) Carryover effect—seen within designs, same subject exposed to extraneous variables C) Experimenter bias---exp. Affects outcome by what they say or do.
D) Sensitization effects
error-stat. variability of scores.cause by influence of variables other than independant.
carryover effect--seen within designs, same subject exposed to extraneous variables.
exp. bais--affects outcome by what they say or do.

sensitization effects--
30. Within-subjects designs are most useful when
when ur looking at changes in performance within each participants across treatments
33. Analysis of your data with inferential statistics
helps decide whether results may be due to ind. variable or error of variance.
34. A drawback of making treatment order an independent variable is that
–research just becomes more comlex.
35. When treatment order is made an independent variable, you have a _______ design. -
nested
35. Understand how to reduce error variance
increase internal validity(control)-eliminating extraneous variables, and increase the effectiveness of u rind. variable
42. Interpretation of your results is done in the ________ section.
results