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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Elaboration analysis allows what to be added to a crosstabs?
A third variable
What statistic indicates whether a relationship found in a random sample's crosstabs is a good estimate for the same relationship in the population?
Chi Square
Which of the following is FALSE about normal curves?
There cannot be any cases above or below standard deviations from the mean
Estimating the probability that an association between two variables is not due to chance in a crosstabular analysis is based on an inferential statistic called:
Chi square
All of the following are ways of defining the median of a distribution EXCEPT:
The arithmetic average
In words, the standard deviation is the:
Square root of the average squared deviation of each case from the mean
Three features of a distribution's shape are:
Central tendency, variability, and skewness
The primary source of data in focus groups and intensive interviews is:
At least some subjects are aware of the field researcher's identity, except in:
Covert Participation
A field researcher must be vigilant of reactive effects, in which:
Changes in individual or group behavior that are due to being observed
Participant observation refers to:
A continuum of roles from complete observer to complete participant
Field research is a common name for which of the following forms of research:
Participant observation
The primary means of recording participant observation data is by creating:
Field notes
Anthropologists call the intention of representing a setting under study in the terms of the researcher:
Etic Focus
Research questions in qualitative analysis tend to be:
Open-ended and exploratory
To reflexively analyze text, what must a researcher focus on?
How his or her orientation shapes research
After identifying concepts in qualitative data, the next step in qualitative analysis is what?
Code the results
Which of the following affects the authenticity of qualitative research?
Whether statements were spontaneous or in response to researcher questions
The credibility of informants
The type of qualitative research that studies how people construct their own realities is known as:
Research that uses photographs, films, or other images as text is known as:
Visual sociology
may influence both independent and dependent variables
creates a spurious association
Extraneous Variable
adding control or
intervening variables in a bivariate relationship
Elaboration Analysis
qual method of data gathering.

developing sustained relationship with people while they go about normal activity
Participant Observation
researchers see things as they happen without participating
Complete Observation
changes in individual or group behavior due to being observed or studied
Reactive Effects
3 types of Degree of Researcher Involvement
Complete Observation, Mixed Participation/Observation, Complete Participation
Hypothesis-testing approach
Deductive Method
Exploratory approach
Inductive Method
Qualitative Research 5 Ethical Issues
Voluntary Participation
Subject Well-being
Identity Disclosure
Online research
Representing a setting with the PARTICIPANTS' TERMS
Emic Focus
Representing a setting with the RESEARCHER's TERMS
Etic Focus
Process by which a Qualitative analyst interacts w/data and refines their focus
Progressive Focusing
Research that describes or ID's the impact of social policies and programs

PURPOSE=to investigate social programs
Evaluation Research
Resources, raw materials, clients and staff that go into a program
The complete treatment or service delivered by a program
Program Process
The service delivered or new product produced by the program process (ie. Clients served etc.)
Impact of the program on the cases that have been processed
Info. about service delivery system outputs, outcomes, or operations.
Focus of this research is whether cases have changed as a result of exposure to program
Black Box or Program Theory
guided by a theory that specifies process by which program has effect
Theory-driven Evaluation
specifies impacts generated and how this occurs
causal mechanism
empirically based
Descriptive Theory
specifies what program ought to do, not actually tested
how to design or implement treatment.
what should be expected.
Prescriptive Theory
expects researchers to be responsive to the people in program
Stakeholder Approach
a task force of program stakeholders who help shape the evaluation project to use its results
Utilization-focused Evaluation
program participants engaged with researchers
help design, conduct and report research.
Action Research or Participatory Research
eliminates pro researcher in favor of structured dialogue about needed change
Appreciative inquiry
This approach emphasizes research to develop most trustworthy, unbiased program evaluation
Social Science Approaches
covers issues of concern to stakeholders and evaluators.
seeks to balance to stakeholders with objectivity and scientific validity.
Integrative Approaches
'Force you to face reality"
measure objective facts
researcher detached
Quantitative Approach
patterns, themes, holistic features
words, images, categories
construct social reality
authenticity is key
researcher is involved
Qualitative Approach
determines needs of population.
uses systemic, credible evidence to evaluate needs.
Needs Assessment
determines whether it is feasible to evaluate a program's effects within available time and resources
Evaluability Assessment
investigates process of delivery.
identifies which part of service has greater impact.
shows incorrect findings.
Process Evaluation
used to shape and refine program operations.
evaluates program coverage and service delivery.
Formative Evaluation
compares what happened after a program was active, with what would've happened had there been no program at all.
Impact Analysis, Impact Eval. or Summative Eval.
Numerical description of a population
statistic used to DESCRIBE the distribution of and relationship among variables
Descriptive Statistics
Estimates the degree of confidence that can be placed in generalizations from a sample
Inferential Statistics
analysis of secondhand data
Secondary Data analysis
checking data for errors after data have been entered in a computer file
Data Cleaning
is summarized using:
mode, median or mean.
Measures of Central Tendancy
5 steps of Qualitative Analysis
simple observation interpreted directly.
"pulled apart" then put back together more meaningfully.
Conclusion Validity 3 Criteria
How credible informant was

Were statements responses or spontaneous?

How researcher presence affect behavior or thoughts of participant?
seeks to describe and understand the natural social world as it actually is

study of human cultures.
the way participants in social setting create and sustain sense of reality
Focuses on...
"the story itself"
seeks to preserve integrity of personal biographies and events.
read stories.
Narrative Analysis
Narrative Analysis 4 diff. story types
Action Tales
Expressive "
Moral "
Rational "
Probability average

most frequent value in a distribution
One problem with mode...

TWO nonadjacent categories, have same number of cases and more that other categories
A distribution of a variable where only ONE VALUE is MORE FREQUENT
position average.

the point that divides the distribution in half.

cumulative of 50%.
arithmetic average.

weighted average.

add value of cases and divide by total # of cases.
A statistic that measures the variability of a distribution as the AVERAGE SQUARED DEVIATION of each case from the MEAN
Square Root of the variance
Standard Deviation
Symmetric distribution shaped like a bell and centered around the population mean.
Normal Distribution
bivariate distribution.

first step in Quant. analysis.

shows distribution of one variable for each category of another
descriptive statistic used to summarize the strength of an association
Measure of Association
A measure of association that is sometimes used in cross-tab analysis
EX: in a positively skewed distribution, the value of the MEAN is larger than the median - more extreme skew.
Differential Impact of Skewness
Captures how widely and densely spread a variable is
Measure of Variation
the highest value minus the lowest value, plus 1 in a distribution.

used to ID whole range of possible values.
an exceptionally high or low value in a distribution
the range where most cases lie.

between end of 1st and beginning of 3rd quartile
Interquartile Range
The points of distribution that correspond to the first:
75% of the cases
An inferential statistic used to test hypotheses about relationships between 2 or more variables in crosstab
when we conclude the relationship is actually there.

not a chance occurrence.
Statistical Significance.
observations summarized into conceptual categories.
re-evaluated in research setting.
gradually refined and linked to other conceptual categories.
Grounded Theory