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100 Cards in this Set

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The Most valuable type of research is
the experiment, used to discover cause and effect relations
Experiments emphasize parisomy, which means
Interpreting the results in the simplest way
Occam's razor suggests that experiments
interpret the results in the simplest manner
A Counselor educator is running an experiment to test a new form of counseling. unbeknownst to eh experimenter one of the clients in the study is secretly seeing a gestalt therapist. this experiment
is confounded/flawed
Nondirective is to person-centered as
parisomy is to occam's razor
An experiment is said to be confounded when
undesirable variables are not kept out of the experiment
In experimental terminology IV stands for________- and DV stands for _________
independent variable, dependent variable
A professor of counselor education hypothesized that biofeedback training could reduce anxiety and improve the average score on written board exams. If this professor decides to conduct a formal experiment the IV will be the
Biofeedback: board exam score
Experimenters should always abide by a code of ethics. the variable you mainpulate/control in a experiment is the
IV or independent variable
In order for the professor of counselor education to conduct an experiment regarding his hypothesis he will need a (n)_______ and a (n)
Control group; experimental group
In order for the professor of counselor education to conduct the experiment suggested in question 708 the experimental group would need to receive
a and b
The Manipulated IV
The biofeedback training
Hypothesis testing is most closely related to the work of
R A Fisher
The null hypothesis suggests that there will not be a significant difference between the experimental group who received the IV and the control group who did not. Thus, if the experiment in question 708 was conducted, the null hypothesis would suggest that
Biofeedback will not improve the board exam scores
The hunch is known as the experimental or alternative hypothesis. The experimental hypothesis suggests that a difference will be evident between the control group and the experimental group (ie: the group receiving the IV) thus if the experiment in question 708 were conducted, the experimental hypothesis would suggest that
the biofeedback would raise the board scores
From purely statistical standpoint, in order to compare a control group (which does not receive the IV or experimental manipulation) to the experimental group the researcher will need
A test of significance
When you see the letter "p" in relation to the test significance it means
probablity
In the social sciences the accepted probability level is usually
.05 or less
P= .05 really means that
there is only a 5% chance that that difference between the control group and the experimental group due to chance factors
P=.05 really means that
Differences truly exist; the experiemnter will obtain the same results 95 out of 100 times
The study that would best rule out chance factors would have a significance level of p=
.001
Type 1 and Type II called ___and ________respectively
alpha, beta
A Type 1 error occurs when
you reject null when it is true
A type II error
A and C
Assume the experiment in question 708 is conducted. The results indicate that he biofeedback helped raise written board exam scores but in reality this is not the case. The researcher has made a
Type I error
A counselor educator decides to increase the sample size in her experiment this will
reduce type 1 and type 11 errors
If a researcher changes the signficance level from .05 to .001, then
alpha errors decrease; however beta errors increase
A counselor believes that clients who receive assertivenss training will ask more questions in counseling class. An experimental group receives assertiveness training while a control group does not. In order to test for signficant differeences between the groups the counselor should utilize
the student's t-test
The researcher in question 727 now attempts a more complex experiment. One group receives no assertivenss training, a second group receives four assertiveness training sessions, and a third receives six sessions. The statistic of choice would
Be the ANOVA
If the research in the previous question utilized two IV"s then the statistic of choice would be
the two-way ANOVA or MANOVA
To complete a t-test you would consult a tabled value to t. IN order to see if significant diffrence exist in an ANOVA you would
consult a table for f values
Which level of signficance would best rule out chance factors?
.001
When a researcher uses correlation, then there is no direct manipulation of the IV. A researcher might ask, for example, how IQ correlates with the incidence of panic disorder. again nothing is manipulated; just measures. IN cases such as this a correaltion coefficient will reveal
a relationship between IQ and panic disorder
A bimodal distribution has two modes (ie: most frequently occuring scores) Graphically, this looks roughly like
a camel's back with two humps
In a basic curve or so-called frequency polygon the point of maximum
mode
The most useful measure of central tendency is the
mean often abbreviated by an X with a bar over it
In a career counseling session an electrical engineer mentions three jobs he has held. The firs paid10 per hour, the second apid 30 per hour and the third paid a higher rate of 50 per hour. The counswelor respons that the client is averaging 30 per hour. The counselor is using
the mean
From a mathematical standpoint, the mean is merely the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores. The mean is misleading when
a and c

The distribution is skewed
There are extreme scored
When a distribution of scores is not distrubed normally statisticans call it
a skewed distribution
The median is
the middle score when the data are arranged from the highest to lowest
In a new experiment, a counselor educator wants to ferret out the effects of more than one IV. She will use a _________design
factorial
Regardless of the shape, the _________will always be the high point when a distribution is displayed graphically
mode
If a group of first semster graduate students in counseling took the NCE exam, a distribution of scores would be
postively skewed
Nine of the world's finest counselor educators are given an elementary exam on counseling theory. The distribution of scores would most likely be
negatively skewed
If data indicate that students who study a lot of get very high scores on state counselor licensing exam, then the correlation between study time and LPC exam scores would be
Positive
A good guess would be that if you would correlate the length of CARCREP graduates' baby toes with their NCE scores the result would
be close to 0.00
Dr. X discovered that the correlation between therapists who hole NCC status and therapists who practice systematic desensitization is 090. A student who perused dr. x's research told his fellow students that Dr. X had discovered that attaining NCC status causes therapists to become behaviorally oriented. The student is incorrect because
Correlation does not imply casual
Behaviorists often utilize N=1, which is called intensive experimental design. The first step in the approach would be to
take a baseline measure
In a new study the clients do not know whether they are receiving an experimental treatment for depression or whether they are simply part of the control group. This is, nevertheless, known to be the researcher. Thus, this is a
single blind study
A large study at a major university gave an experimental group of clients a new type of therapy that was intended to ameliorate test anxiety. The control group did not receive the new therapy. Neither the clients nor the researches knew which students received the new treatment. This was a
Double bind study
Experimental is to cause and effect as correlational is to
degree of relationship
In a normal curve the mean, the median, and the mode all fall precisely in the middle of the curve. From a graphical standpoint the so-called noraml or Gaussian curve (named after the astronomer/mathematician K.F. Guass) looks like
a symmetrical bell
the most common measures of central tendency are the mean, the median and the mode. The mode is
a most frequently occuring score and the least important measure of central tendency
Billy received an 82 on his college math final. This is Billy's raw score on the test. A raw score simply refers to the number of items correctly answered. A raw score is expressed in the units by which it was originally obtained. The raw score is not altered mathematically Billy's raw score indicates that
more information is obviously neccessary
A distribution with class intervals can be graphically displayed via a bar graph
Histogram
When a horizontal line is drawn under a frequency distribution it is known as
the x axis
the z axis is used to plot the IV scores. The x axis is also known as
the abcissa
The y axis is used to plot the frequency of the DV's. The y axis is also known as the
ordinate
If a distribution is bimodal, then there is a good chance that
the researcher is working with two distinct populations
if an experiment can be replicated by others with almost identical finding, then the experiment
is said to be reliable
The range is a measure of the variance and usually is calculated by determining the difference between the highest and the lowest score. Thus, on a test where the top score was a 93 and the lowest score was a 33 out of 100, the range would be
61
Sociogram is to counseling group as a scattergram is to
a correlation coefficient
A counselor educator is teaching two separate classes in individual inventory. In the morning class the counselor educator had 53 students and in the afternoon class she has 177. A statistician would expect that the range of scores on a test would be
greater in the afternoon class than the morning class
The variance is a measure of diperision of scores around some measure of central tendency. the variance is the standard deviation squared. A popular test has a standard deviation (SD) of 15. A counselor would expect that if the mean IQ score is 100, then
68% of the people who take the test will score between 85 and 115
Using the data in question 764 one could say that a person with an IQ score of 122 would fall within
Plus or minus 2SD of the means
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. AZ-score of +1 would be the same as
One standard deviation above the mean
Z-scores are the same as standard deviations, thus a z-scores of -2.5 means
2 1/2 SD below the mean
A T-score is different that a z-score. A z-score is the same as the standard deviation. A T-score, however, has a mean of 50 with every 10 points landing at a standard deviation aboe or below the mean. Thus a T-score of 60 would equal +1 SD while T score of 40 would
Be -1SD
An IQ score on an IQ test which was three standard deviations above the mean would be
Near the genius level
A platykurtic distribution would look approx. like
The upper half of a hot dog, lying on its side over the abscissa
Test scores on an exam that fell below three standard deviations of the mean or about three standard deviations of the mean could be described as
Extreme
In World War II the Air force used stanine scores as a measurement. Stanine scores divide the distribution into nine equal intervals with stanine 1 as the lowest ninth and 9 as the highest ninth. In the system 5 is the mean. Thus a Binet IQ score of 101 would fall in stanine
5
The are four basic measurement scales; the nominal, the ordinal, the interval and the ratio. the nominal scale is strictly a qualitiative scale. It is the simplest type of scale. It is used to distinquish logically seperated groups. Which of the following illustrates the function of the nominal scale?
A DSM or ICD diagnostic category
The ordinal scale rank-orders variables, though the relative distance between the elements is not always equal. An example of this would be
a horse categorized as a second place winner in a race
The interval scale has numbers scales at equal distances but has no absolute zero point. Most tests used in school fall into this category. you can add and subtract using interval scales but cannot multiply or divide. An example of this would be
that an IQ of 70 is 70 points below an IQ of 140, yet a counselor could not assert that a client with an IQ of 140 is twice as intelligent as a client with an IQ of 70.
A ratio scale is an interval scale with a true zero point. Ratio measurements are possible using this scale. addition, subtration, mulitiplication and division all can be utilized on a ration scale. In terms of counseling research
Most psychological attributes cannot be measured on a ratio scale
Researchers often utilize naturalistic observation when doing ethological investigations or studying children's behavior. In this approach
The researcher does not manipulate or control variables
The simplest form of descriptive research us the ________, which requires a questionaire return rate of________to be accurate
Survey 50%-75%
A researcher gives a depressed patient a sugar pill and the individual's depression begins to lift. This is known as
the placebo effect
A researcher notes that a group of clients who are not receiving counseling, but are observed in a research study, are improving. Her hypothesis is that the attention she has given them has been curative. The best expalantion of their improvement would be
the hawthorne effect
An elementary school counselor tells the third grade teacher that a test revealed that certain children will excel during the school year. In reality, no such test was administered. Moreover, the children were unaware of the experiment. By the end of the year, all of the children who were supposed to excel did excel. This would best be explained via
The rosenthal effect
A panel of investigators discovered that a researcher who completed a major study had unconciously rated attractive females as bette counselors. this is an example of
The halo effect
All of the following describe the analysis of covariance technique except
it is a correlation coefficient
Three years ago am impatient chemical dependency center in a hospital asked their clients if they would like to undergo an archaic form of therapy created by Wilhem Reich known as "vegotherapy". Approx. half of the clients stated that they wold stick with the tried and true program of the center. Out comes data on their drinking was compiles at the end of 7 weeks. today- three year later- a statistician compared the two groups based on their drinking behavior at the end of the 7 weeks using a t-test. This study could best be describes as
Casual comparative research
A WAIS-III IQ test is given to 100 adults picked randomly. How many of the adults most likely would receive an IQ score between 85 and 115?
68 people
A researcher creates a new motoric test in which clients throw a baseball at a target 40 feet away. Each client is given 100 throws and the mean on the test is 50. (in other words, out of 100 throws the mean number of times that client will hit the target is 50 times) Sam took the test and hit the target just two times out of the 100 throws allowed. Jeff, on the other hand, hit the target an amazing 92 out of 100 trails. Using the concept of statistical regression toward the mean the research would predict that
Sam's score will increase while JEff's will go down
Standardized tests always have
Formal procedures for test adminstration and scoring
There are two distinct types of developmental studies, In a cross-sectional study, clients are assessed at one point in time. In a longitudinal study, however
the same people are studied over a period if time
A Counselore educator , DR. Y is doing research on his classes. He hypothesizes that id he reinforces students in the morning class by smiling each time a student asks a relevant question, then more students will ask questions and exam grades will go up. Betty and Linda accidentally overheard Dr. Y discussing the experiment with the department chairman. Betty is a real people pleaser and decides that she will ask lots of questions and try to help Dr. Y confirm his hypothesis. Linda, nevertheless, is angry that she is being experimented on and promises Betty that Dr. Y could smile until the cows come in but she still wouldn't ask a question. Both Linda and Betty exemplify
Demand characterstics of experiments
If an ANOVA yields a significant F value, you could rely on ________ to test significant differences between group means
Duncan's multiple range, Turkey's or Scheffe's test
Switching the order that stimuli are presented to a subject in a study is known as
counterbalancing
A doctoral student who begins working on the bibliography for his thesis would most likely utilize
ERIC , for primary and secondary resources
In a random sample each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Selection is by chance. In new study, however, it will be important to include 20 % blacks. What type of sampling procedure will be neccessary
Stratified sampling would be best
A researcher wants to run a true experiment but insists she will not use a random sample. You could safely say that
she could accomplish this using systematic sampling
An operational definition
outlines a procedure
In a parametric test the assumption is that the score are normally distributed. In nonparametric testing the curve is not a normal distributed. Which of these test are nonparametric statistical measures?
All of the above are nonparametric measures
A researcher studies a single session of counseling in which a counselor treats a client's phobia using a paradoxical stratgey. He then writes in his reasearch report that paradox is the treatment of choice for phobics. This is an example of
Inductive logic or reasoning
A client goes to a string of 14 chemical dependency centers that operate on the 12 step model. When his current therapist suggests a new impatient program the client repsonds with, "what for, I already know the twelve steps?" This client is using
Deductive logic
mike takes a math acheivement test. In order to predict his score if he takes the test again the counselor must know
the standard error of measurement
A researcher performs a study that has excellent external or so-called population validity, meaning that the results have generalizability. to collect his data the researcher gave clients a rating scale in which they were to respond with strongly agrees, somewhat agree, nuetral, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree. this is
a likert scale
Which of the following would most likely yield a perfect correlation of 1.00?
Length in inches and length in centimeters