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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain
Spinal Cord
Brains basement beginning where spinal cord enters the skull
Controls heartbeat and breathing
Network of neurons extending from spinal cord up to thalamus
Reticular Formation
Brains sensory switchboard, located on top of brainstem, directs messages to sensory receiving arease in the cortex of the brain and transmits replies to cerebullum and medulla
The "little brain" attatched to the rear of brainstem, helping to codinate voluntary movement and balance
system of neural structures on border of brainstem; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression
limbic system
Three parts of limbic system
amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
Clusters that are components of the limbic system and linked to emotion
Neural structure directing several maintenance activities, and helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland and linked to emotion
intricate interconnected neural cells that cover the cerebral hemispheres; bodys ultamite control and information-processing center
cerebral cortex
cells in nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish and protect neurons
glial cells
portion of brain involving speaking and muscle movement and making plans/judgements
frontal lobes
portion of brain that includes sensory neurons
parietal lobes
portion of brain including auditory areas
temporal lobes
Area in brain that controls voluntary movement
motor cortex
the area in the brain that registers and processes body sensations
sensory cortex
areas of brain that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions: rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
association areas
impairment of language, usually cause by left hemisphere damage either to Brocar area or Wernicks Area
area of frontal lobe that directs muscle movement involved in speech
Brocas Area
brain area involved in language comprehension and expression
Wernicke's AREA
Brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain and in experiments on the effects of experience of brain development
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
corpus collosum
condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
split brain
left side of brain usually serves as the
right side of the brain usually responds to
simples requests, observation, recognizing faces, percieving emotion
tissue destruction
amplified reocrding of waves of electrical activit that sweep across brains surface measure by electrodes placed on scalp
series of x-ray photos taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representative of a slice through the body
Computed temography scan (CAT scan)
visual display of brain activity that detects where a a radioactive form of glucose goes while brain performs a given task
PET scan
a tehcnique that uses magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce computer0generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue
bodys electrochemical communication system, consisting of nerve cells f periphial and central nervous system
nervous system
brain and spinal cord make up this structure
antral nervous system
sensory/motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
periphial nervous system
neural cables containing many axons which connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
carry incoming information from sense receptors to central nervous system
carry outgoing information from central nervous sytem to muscle and glands
motor neurons
division of peripheral nervous system that controls bodys skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
part of peripheral nervous system that controls glands/muscles of the internal organs
autonomic nervous system
arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
sympathetic nervous system
calms the body, preserving its energy
parasympathetic nervous system
the bodys slow chemical communcation system; a set of glands that secrete hormoes into bloodstream
endocrine system
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactures by endocrine glands
endocrine systems influential glande, regulating growth and controlling other endocrine glands = MASTER GLAND
pituitary gland
alpha waves are a part of which stage of sleep?
in what stage of sleep are you awake and relaxed
in what stage of sleep does your heart rate initially begin to decrease, along with temperature, and blood pressure drops, muscles relax, eyes roll back
Stage 1
At what stage of sleep is HR, temp, and BP at its lowest?
Stage 4
At which stage do delta waves occur in?
Stage 4
Average time length of sleep cycle
90 minutes
Sleep Cycle
Freuds idea of the "manifest" dream
obvious meaning of dream
Freuds idea of the "latent" dream
hidden meaning behind the dream
periodic physiological flunctuations
biological rhythms
biological clock; regular body rhythms that occur on 24-hr cycle
circadiar rhythm
What things can possibly disrupt circadiar rhythm
transcontinental flights, light, replication
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
accumulated loss of sleep based on 9-hour per night average
sleep debt
recurring problems in falling/staying asleep
sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary awakenings - "snoring"
sleep aphea
high arousal and an appearance of being terrorized, occuring during stage 4 sleep
night terror
sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind
remembered story of a dream
manifest content
underlying meaning of a dream
latent content
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
REM rebounds
structural brain imaging techniques
xray, CT, MRI
functional brain imaging techniques
computerzied tomography
magnetic resonance imaging (proton spin)
functional MRI (blood flow)
positron emission tomography (radioactive decay)
electroencephalography (eletrical)
event related optical signal (light scattering)
magnetoencephalography (magnetic)
transcranial magnetic stimulation (magnetic)
Wilhelm Rontgen, 1895
discovered the xray
Hans Berger and Eugene Aserinsky first used the