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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The process by which a conditioned response is established or strengthened
A procedure for determining the reinforcers that sustain an unwanted behavior and then reducing he reinforcements for the unwanted behavior and providing suitable reinforcers for more acceptable behaviors
applied behavior analysis (or behavior modification)
Learning to make a repsonse that avoids pain or similar outcome
avoidance learning
A psychologist who insists that psychologists should study only observable, measurable behaviors, not mental processes
The concept that certain stimuli are readily associated with each other and that cetain responses are readily associated with certain outcomes
The tendency of a previously established association to one stimulus to block the formation of an association to an added stimulus
blocking effect
A procedure for developing a sequence of behaviors in which the reinforcement for one response is the opportunity to engage inthe next response
The process by which an organism learns a new association between two paired stimuli- a neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a reflexive response
classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning)
Whatever response the conditioned stimulus begins to elicit as a result of the conditioning procedure
conditioned response (CR)
A stimulus that comes to evoke a particular response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
The tendency to avoid eating a substance that has been followed by illness when it was eaten in the past
conditioned taste aversion
Reinforcement for every correct response
continuous reinforcement
1) In classical conditioning making different responses to different stimuli that have been followed by different outcomes
2) In operant conditioning learning to respond in one way to one stimulus and in a different way to another stimulus
A stimulus that indicates on which occasion a response will produce a certain consequence
discriminative stimulus
The principle that an opportunity to engage in any deprived activity will be a reinforcer because it restores equilibrium
disequilibrium principle
The progressively waker effects of a drug after repeated use
drug tolerance
Learning to escape from an event such as shock
escape learning
1) In classical conditioning the dying out of the conditioned response after repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
2) In operant conditioning the weakening of a response after a period without reinforcement
A rule for delivering reinforcement for the first response that the subject makes after a specified period of time has passed
fixed-interval schedule
Reinforcement for some responses and not for others
intermittent reinforcement
Something that we infer without directly observing it and that links a variety of procedures to a variety of possible responses
intervening variable
Thorndike's theory that a response followed by favorable consequences becomes more probable and a response followed by unfavorable consequences becomes less probable
law of effect
A graphical representation of the changes in behavior that occur over the course of learning
learning curve
A psychologist who studies only measurable, observable events but sometimes uses those observations to make inferences about internal events
methodological behaviorist
A decrease in the future probability of a response because it led to the absence of something such as food
negative punishement
An increase in the future probability of a response becuase it led to the absense of something such as paing
negtive reinforcement
Learning to suppress a behavior that would lead to the omission of an event such as food
omission training
The process of changing behavior by following a repsonse with reinforcement
operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning)
Learning to avoid an outcome such as shock by being passive- that is, by inhibiting a response that would lead to the outcome
passive avoidance learning
Strengthening a behavior through the presentation of an event such as food
positive reinforcement
The principle that the opportunity to engage in a frequent behavior will reinforce a less frequent behavior
Premack principle
An event that is reinforcing because of its own properties
primary reinforcer
An event that decreases the probability that a response will be repeated
A behaviorist who denies that internal, private events are causes of behavior
radical behaviorist
An event that follows a response and increases the later probability or frequency of that response
A rule or procedure linking the pattern of responses to the reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement
An event that becomes reinforcing because it has previously been associated with a primary reinforcer
secondary reinforcer
The perception of one's own ability to perform a task successfully
A time early in life during which some kind of learning occurs most readily
sensitive period
A technique for establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations
Movements of teh muscles that move the limbs, trunk, and head
skeletal response
The view that people learn by observing and imitating the behavior of others andy by imagining the consequences of their own behavior
social-learning approach
The temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay
spontaneous recovery
The ability of a stimulus to encourage some responses and discourage other
stimulus control
1) In classical conditioning the extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to similar stimuli
2) In operant conditioning the tendency to make a similar response to a stimulus that resembles one that has already been associated with reinforcement
stimulus generalization
A field that attempts to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response
stimulus-response psychology
An automatic connection between a stimulus and a response
unconditioned reflex
An automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response (UCR)
A stimulus that automatically elicits an unconditioned response
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
A rule for delivering reinforcement after varying numbers of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule
The observed reinforcement or punishement experieneced by someone else
vicarious reinforcement (punishment)
Activities of the internal organs
visceral responses