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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
x chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both male and female. Females have 2 x chromosomes; males have 1. xx=female
y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. when paired with an x chromosome from
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it. Helps growth of male sex organs
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behaviors by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behaviors accordingly
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant womans heavy drinking, In severe cases, there are noticeable facial misprportions
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by expirience
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets info
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new info
all the mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, and communicating
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory inpressions and motor activities. (birth to 2 years)
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
concrete operational stage
in Piagets theory of cognitive development where children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
(6 or 7-11yrs)
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, where ppl begin to think logically about abstract concepts
(begins at age 12)
strange anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning about 8mos of age
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to a caregiver and showing distress in separation
clinical period
on optiman period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
the process where certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in their lives
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
the transition peroid from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
the period of sexual maturity, during which a person becomes capable of repoducing.
primary sex characteristics
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice and hair
the first menstral period
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
in Eriksons theory, the ability to form close loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
the time of natural cessation of menstration; also refers to biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
cross-sectional study
a study where ppl of different ages are compared to one another
longitudinal study
research where the same ppl are restudied and retested over a long period
crystilized intellegence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intellegence
ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
the process where our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our enviroment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain
top-down processing
info processing by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perception drawing on our experiences and expectations.
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intesity, and our pyschological experience of them
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
below one's absolute threshold for concious awareness
difference threshold
the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience this threshold as just a noticeable difference
Weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, 2 stimuli must differ by constant minimum percentage.
sensory adaptations
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant simulations
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light
the amt of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the waves amplitude
the process where the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual info
see black and white and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont respond
detect color. near center of retina function in daylight or well-lit areas. can detect details
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
blind spot
the pt where the optic nerve leaves the eye. No recepter cells located there
feature detectors
nerves cells in brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem stimulus; the brains natural mode of info processing for many functions, includin vision.
Young-Helmholtz trichomatic theory
the theory that the retina contains 3 different color receptors-red, green, and blue-which can produce any color
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision. FOr example some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistant color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses as when we perceive voices in films as coming from the projector behind us.
the sense of hearing
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a pt in a given time
the tone's highness or lowness; depends on fequency
middle ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing 3 tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochleas oval window
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger optic nerve impulses
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
figure ground
the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
depth perception
the ability to see objects in 3 dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimentional. Allows us to judge distance
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of 2 eyes
monocular cues
distance cues, such as linear perspective and overlap, available to either eye alone
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for percieving depth: By compairing images from the 2 eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater distance the closer the object
a binocular cue for perceiveing depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination as retinal images change.
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artifically displaced or even inverted visual field
perseptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another