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48 Cards in this Set

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learning
process in which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior.
conditioning
acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli.
classical (or pavlovian) conditiong
Type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a differvent.
unconditional stimulus (US)
A stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way.
unconditional response (UR)
Response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
Orginally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone.
conditioned response (CR)
After conditioning the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented.
desensitization therapy
conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation.
conditioned food (or taste) aversion
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only 1 pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
operant behavior
behavior designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant.
operant or instrumental conditioning
type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments.
reinforcer
stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
punisher
stimulus that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be stamped in as learned behavior and behavior that brings about discomfort will be stamped out. (also known as the principle of reinforcement)
positive reinforcer
any event whose presence increases the likihood that ongoing behavior will recur.
negative reinforcer
any event whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur.
punishment
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur.
avoidance training
learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant such as punishment.
learning helplessness
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli.
biofeedback
technique that uses monitoring devices to provide precise information about internal phsycological processes, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions.
neurofeedback
biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves using an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity.
response acquisition
the building phase of conditioning during which the likelihood or strength of the desired response increases.
intermittent pairing
pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials.
skinner box
box often used in an operant conditioning of animals, which limits the available response and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur.
shaping
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior.
extinction
decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response because of failure to continue pairing the US and CS(classical conditioning) or withholding or reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery
reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without further training.
stimulus generalization
transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimuli.
stimulus discrimination
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli.
response generalization
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus.
higher-order conditioning
conditioning based on previous learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training.
primary reinforcer
reinforcer that is rewarding in itself, such as food, water, and sex.
secondary reinforcer
reinforcer whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforces.
contigency
reliable 'if then' relationship between 2 events such as a CS and a US.
blocking
Process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulate even when the 2 stimuli are presented simultaneously.
schedule of reinforcement
Operant conditioning, the rule of determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered.
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcement.
variable-interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths of time following the last reinforcement.
fixed-ratio schedule
reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed # of correct responses.
variable-ratio schedule
reinforcement schedule in which a varying # of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented.
cognitive learning
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable.
latent learning
learning that is not immediately relfected in a behavior change.
congitive map
learning mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change.
insight
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem.
learning set
ability to become increasingly more effective in solving porblems as more problems are solved.
social learning theory
view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner.
observational (vicarious) learning
learning by observing other people's behavior.
vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment
reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models.