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71 Cards in this Set

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The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
psychology
The founder of Psychology. He used scientific methods to study fundamental psychological processes, such as mental reaction times in response to visual or auditory stimuli. He printed the book 'Principles of Physiological Psychology'.
Wilhelm Wundt
This psychologists formed one of the first ideas of psychology, called structuralism.
Edward B. Titchener
Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the most basic omponents, or structures, of conscious experiences.
structuralism
Psychologist that created the idea of Functionalism
William James
Psychologists that emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality, called psychoanalysis
Sogmund Freud
Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior
psychoanalysis
Russian psychologists who created another psychological approach called behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person's uniques potential for psychological growth and self-direction
behaviorism
Psychologists that strongly objected to structuralism, rather he agreed with the theory of behaviorism.
John B. Watson
This psychologist used reinforcement or punishment to shape the behavior of rats and pigeons.
B.F. Skinner
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
humanistic psychology
Psychologist who founded humanistic psychology
Carl Rogers
Advocate of humanistic psychology
Abraham Maslow
perspective in psychology that studies the physical basis of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and genetics.
The biological perspective
Perspective that emphasizes the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior or in treating people with psychological problems.
The psychodynamic perspective
perspective that studies how behavior is acquired or modified by environmental causes. Many psychologists who work in this area also tries to explain and treat psychological disorders.
The behavioral perspective
perspective that focuses on the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influence of interpersonal relationships on a persons self-concept, and the importance of choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential
The humanistic perspective
perspective that focuses on on the important role of mental processes in how people process and remember informations, develop language, solve problems, and think
The Cognitive perspective
perspective that studies how cultural factors influence behavior
The Cross-cultural perspective
The application of principles of evolution including natural selection, to explain psychological processes
evolutionary psychology
cultures that emphasizes the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual
collectivitic cultures
the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to another
culture
the belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures
ethnocentrism
cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group
individualistic cultures
focuses on the relationship between behavior and the body's physical systems, including the brain and the rest of the nervous system, the endocrine system, the immune system, and genetics
Biological psychology
research focused on such basic topics as sensory processes, principles of learning, emotion, and motivation
Experimental Psychology
studies the physical, social, and psychological changes that occur at different ages and stages of the lifespan, from conception to old age
Developmental Psychology
explores how people are affected by their social environments, including how people think about and influence others
Social Psychology
examines individual differences and the characteristics that make each person unique, including how the characteristics originated and devoloped.
Personality Psychology
focuses on the role of psychological factors in the development, precention, and treatment of illnesses
Health Psychology
studies how people of all ages learn
Educational Psychology
studies the relationship between people and work
Industrial Psychology
studies the causes, treatment, and prevention of different types of psychological disorders.
Clinical Psychology
a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to ivestigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions
Scientific method
Evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation
empirical evidence
the active process of trying to minimize the influence of preconceptions and biasis while rationally evalutating evidence, determing the conclusions that can be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations
critical thinking
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
hypothesis
A factor that can vary or change in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified
variable
A precise description of how the varibles in a study will be manipulated or measured
Operational definition
A brnch of mathematics used by reasearchers to organize, summarize, and interpret data
statistics
A mathmatical indication that research results are not very likely to have occured by chance
statistically significant
a statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many reasearch studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends
meta-analysis
to repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings
replicate
a tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations
theory
Scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events
descriptive research methods
the systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting
naturalistic observation
an intensive study of a single individual or small group of individuals
case study
a questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinons, behaviors, and characteristics of a particular group
survey
a selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied
sample
a selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics
representative sample
process in which subjects are selected randomely from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study
random selection
a reaserch strategy tha allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other
correlation study
a numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables
correlations coefficient
a finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together
positive correlation
a finding that two factors vary systematically in the opposite directions, one increases as the other decreases
negative correlation
a method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and -effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor
experimental method
the purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment
independent variable
the factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment
dependent variable
the process of assigning participants to experiamental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study
random assignment
in an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable or treatment of intrest
experimental group/experimental conidition
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable or treatment of intrest; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared
control group/control conditon
In an experiment, a control group in which the participants are exposed to a fake independent variable.
placebo control group
any change in performance that results from mere repition of task
practice effect
changes in a subjects behavior produced by the subjects belief that change should happen
expectancy effects
Experimental technique in which neither the participants nor the reasercher interacting with the participants is aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned
double-blind study
In a research study, subtle cus or signals expressed by the reasearcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is expected from the participant
demand characteristics
a fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence
pseudscience
Alleged abilities or events that fall outside the range of normal experiance and established scientific explanations
paranormal phenomena
In order for a claim to be scientifically tested and proved true, there must be identifiable evidence that could prove the claim false.
rule of falsifiability
the mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not
illusory correlation