Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
scientific method
use of objective, measurable, and repeatable techniques to gather information
factor having no fixed or constant value in a given situation
operational definition
specification of variables in terms of measurable properties
degree to whcih an assessment procedure actually measures the variable under consideration
degree to which a measure will yield the same results if administered repeatedly
naturalistic observation
study in which observations of naturally ocurring behavior are made in real-life settings
participant reactivity
tendency of individuals who know they are under boservation to alter natural behavior
observer bias
tendency of researchers to interpret ongoing eents as being consistent with their research hypothesis
structured observation
study in which behaviors are recorded as they occur within a situation constructed by the experimenter; usually in the laboratory
structured interview
standardized set of questions administered orally to participants
set of standardized questions administered to participants in written form
clincial method
flexible, open-ended interview method in which questions are modified in reaction to the child's responses
statistical examination of a body of research studies to assess the effect of the common central variable
correlational study
study that ssesses whether changes in on variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable
positive correlation
relationship in which changes in one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable in the same direction
negative correlation
relationship in which changes in one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable in the opposite direction
correlation coefficient (<i>r</i>)
statistical measure, ranging from +1.00 to -1.00, that summarizes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables; does not provide information about causation
experimental design
research method in which one or more independent variables are manipulated to determine the effect on other, dependent variables
independent variable
variable manipulated by the experimenter; the suspected cause
dependent variable
behavior that is measured; suspected effect of an experimental manipulation
random assignment
use of principles of chance to assign participants to treatment and control groups; avoids systematic bias
field experiment
experiment conducted in a "natural," real-world setting such as the child's home or school
study in which the assignmeent of participants to experimental groups is determined by their natural experiences
case study
in-depth description of psychological characteristics and behaviors of an individual, often in the form of a narrative
single-case design
study that follows only one or a few participants over a period of time, with an emphasis on systematic collection of data
longitudinal study
research in which the same participants are repeatedly tested over a period of time, usually years
age-history confound
in longitudinal studies, the co-occurence of historical factors with changes in age; affects the ability to interpret results
cross-sectional study
study in which individuals of different ages are examined at the same point in time
cohort effects
characteristics shared by individuals growing up in a given sociohistorical context that can influence developmental outcomes
sequential study
study that examines groups of children of different ages over a period of timel usually shorter than a longitudinal study
cross-cultural study
study that compares individuals in different cultural contexts
set of methods, including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems within a given culture
informed consent
participant's formal acknowledgement that he or she understands the purposes, procedures, and risks of a study and agrees to participate in it
providing research participants with a statement of the true goals of a study after initially deceiving them or omitting information about its purposes