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84 Cards in this Set

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who said " the naked intellect is an extraordinarily inaccurate instrument"
(aka our intuition can lead us astray)
madeleine d'engle
what is the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

(also known as the "i knew it all along phenomenom."
hindsight bias
"i knew it all along phenomenom."
what describes what has happened more easily than it predicts what will happen?
common sense
who reportedly said, "prediction is very difficult, especially about the future?"
physicist Neils Bohr
what two things limit our everyday thinking?
our common sense and our tendency to be overconfident
hindsight makes things so obvious that people tend to get ...
overconfident
what leads us to overestimate our intuition?
overconfidence and hindsightbias
underlying all science is what?
curiosity
what is a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled?
curiosity
putting a scientific attitude into practice requires what two things?
skepticism and humility
what is thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions? rather it examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, and evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.
critical thinking
aka "smart thinking"
what do you call the explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts?
a theory
what is a a testable prediction that is often implied by a theory?
a hypothesis
what do you call a statement of the procedures that are used to define research variables?

ex: human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
operational definition
what is repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
replicate
what organizes observations and imply predictive?
psychological theories
what is the oldest research method?
case studies
what is it when psychologists study one individual in great depth int he hope of revealing things true of us all
a case study
what is a disadvantage to using case studies?
the person under study could be atypical/bias
what looks at many cases in less depth compared to a case study?
a survey
what do you call the technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, like a random sample of them?
a survey
does wording affect the opinions that the respondents express?
yes it does

ex: people like hearing "aid to the needy" vs. "welfare"
what do you call the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors?
false consensus effect
what are all the cases, in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study? (aka the whole group you want to study and describe)
a population
what is a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion?
random sample
what are the disadvantages of using the survey method?
your wording and your choice of respondents.
what do you call observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation?
naturalistic observation
naturalistic observation does not explain behavior, it ....
describes behavior
when we laugh, how many muscles contort our mouth and squeeze our eyes?
seventeen
describe advantages of case studies
they describe behaviors and can suggest hypotheses but studying an unrepresentative individual may lead to false conclusions
name the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys to study behavior and mental processes
the survey can describe the behavior from information from the large number of people but this technique relies on people giving accurate self-reports of their attitudes and behavior... trusting issue
explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling
wording or phrasing affects responses. random sampling helps researchers achieve a sample that fairly represents the population under study because of randomosity.
what is an advantage of naturalistic observation to study behavior
it can expand our understanding and lead to hypotheses that can be then studied
what do you call it when one trait or behavior accompanies one another?
they correlate
define correlation
the measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
"when we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief" is an example of what?
illusionary correlation
what do you call it when you have a perception of a relationship where none actually exists
illusionary correlation
describe how people form illusory correlations
illusory correlations are random events that we notice and falsely assume are related.

they arise from our sensitivity to dramatic or unusual events.
explain the human tendency to perceive order in random sequences
we search for patterns in an attempt to make sense of the world around us. patterns occur naturally in sets of random data
what is a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors(variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes.
experiments

they enable a researcher to focus on the possible effects of one or more factors:
-manipulating the factors of interest
-holding constant other factors
what is the difference between correlational studies vs. an experiment?
correlational studies uncover naturally occurring relationships, and experiments manipulates a factor to determine its effect
give an example of a double blind procedure
the pepsi taste test....

consumers that prefer pepsi may change their mind when they are blindfolded or not told what brand they are drinking... coke vs. pepsi
what is the experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about what the research participants were given... even a placebo
double blind procedure
what do you call it when just believing you are getting a treatment can boost your spirits, relax your body, and relieve your symptoms?
the placebo effect
what is latin for "i shall please?"
placebo
what do you call it when the experimental results are caused by expectations only?
placebo effect
what is the condition in which the experiment exposes participants to a version of the independent variable?
the experimental condition
what do you call the condition that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves for evaluating the effect of the treatment?
the control condition
what is the difference between the independent and dependent variable?
the factor that is manipulated is the independent variable
which variable is the factor that is manipulated?
the independent variable
what discovers cause/effect relationships?
experiments
explain the importance of statistical principles?
they help us organize, summarize, and make inferences from data.
how can bar graphs misrepresent data?
scale labels and ranges used in bar graphs can be designed to minimize or maximize differences.
what are the three measures of central tendency?
mode, median, and the mean.
what are the two measures of variations?
range and standard deviation
what describes the gap between the highest and lowest scores?
range
every non-genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
environment
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
behavior genetics
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
chromosomes
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes, a segment of dna capable of synthesizing a protein
genes
what are the building blocks of our physical development?
protein
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organisms chromosomes.
genome
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
identical twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal development
fraternal twins
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
temperament
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to the differing genes.
*The heritability of a trait may very, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
heritability
how are we different and similar within our human families?
we differ from them in personality, interests, physical appearances, and language with culture.

we are similar in our biological heritage and needs, the senses with which we explore the world around us, and our social behaviors.
how many chromosomes are there in each of our cells?
46

23 from our mother and 23 from our father
in what ways do behavior geneticists use adoption studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity?
adopted children carry the genetic inheritance from their biological parents into an environment created by their adopted families.
what do we mean by genes are self-regulating?
they are not blueprints, they react different in different environments
thos studies the molecular structure and function of genes in search of those that influence behaviors?
molecular geneticists
genetics
what is the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
evolutionary psychology
what is the principle that, among among th range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
natural selection
what do you call a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
a mutation
who noted that more men than women desire multiplw sexual partners, butt he things men and women seek in a mate are remarkably similar?
Lynn Carol Miller
what is the difference between nature vs. nurture?
Plato: nature is all that a man brings with him into the world

Aristotle: nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth
what is the zygote?
conception to 2 wks

a rapid cell division occurs and develops into the embryo
what is the embryo?
2 wks through 8 wks
what is the fetus?
9 wks to birth
what are agents, that can reach the embryo and fetus during prenatal development and can cause harm?
teratogens
what do you call a baby's tendency when touched on the cheek, they turn towards the touch and open their mouth and search for a nipple?
rooting reflex
what do you call an individual's characteristic pattern on thinking, feeling, and acting?
personality
what is the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by distorting reality?
defense mechanisms