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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rates of murder and assault are consistently higher for men. The roots of this difference appear to lie in:

A)virtual violence on video games
B)childhood experience
C)high testosterone levels
D)televised violence
B)Childhood experience
30 years after being photographed as "happy" in their college yearbook photos, a group of women was found to be:

A)mostly unhappy
B)as likely to be happy as unhappy
C)mostly happy
D)alternately happy and unhappy
C)mostly happy
A person's unique qualities are known as:

A. central traits
B. individual traits
C. common traits
D. cardinal traits
B. individual traits
In social learning theory, how a person interprets or defines a situation is the person's:

A. psychological situation
B. psychological drive
C. psychological need
D. psychological expectancy
A. psychological situation
In Freudian thought, inhibitions, rigidity, or unbearable guilt results from:

A. an overly strict superego
B. an overactive ego ideal
C. a defective ego ideal
D. a weak superego
A. an overly strict superego
The tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to an entire personality is known as the:

A. observer bias
B. halo effect
C. observer effect
D. participant effect
B. halo effect
The raw material from which personality is formed is:

A. traits
B. self-control
C. character
D. temperament
D. temperament
Theories that explain personality in terms of the combined effects of heredity and personality are known as:

A. trait theories
B. psychodynamic theories
C. humanistic theories
D. behavioral personality theories
C. humanistic theories
The period of time during which perosnal pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth is known as:

A. genital stage
B. oral stage
C. phallic stage
D. anal stage
B. oral stage
In the psychoanalytical thought, when the ego delays action until it is practical, the principle involved is the:

A. pleasure principle
B. death instinct
C. life instinct
D. reality principle
D. reality principle
Actions that are most likely to bring about positive reinforcement are:

A. cues
B. rewards
C. responses
D. drives
B. responses
Carl Rogers described a capacity for self-esteem and self-evaluation as:

A. organismic valuing
B. unconditional positive regard
C. conditions of worth
D. positive self regard
D. positive self regard
The term personality refers to:

A. personal charisma
B. personal charm
C. personal uniqueness
D. personal style
C. personal uniqueness
Carl Rogers believed that positive and negative evaluations by others cause children to develop:

A. positive self regard
B. conditions of worth
C. organismic valuing
D. unconditional positive regard
B. conditions of worth
The preconscious contains:

A. predictions of future behavior
B. repressed memories and emotions
C. material that can easily be brought to awareness
D. everything you are aware of at any given moment
C. material that can easily be brought to awareness
Self-reinforcement can be thought of as the social learning theorists counterpart to the:

A. superego
B. ego
C. pleasure principle
D. id
A. superego
Unshakeable love and approval from others results in:

A. organismic valuing
B. unconditional positive regard
C. positive self regard
D. conditions of worth
B. unconditional positive regard
A bold, outgoing person is known as:

A. Type B
B. Type A
C. an extrovert
D. an introvert
C. an extrovert
The growing capacity for responsible social sexual relationships describes the Freudian stage known as the:

A. genital stage
B. phallic stage
C. oral stage
D. anal stage
A. genital stage
Severe, punishing, or frustrating toilet training can have:

A. desirable effects
B. aggressive effects
C. undesirable effects
D. little or no effects
C. undesirable effects
Arriving at the company break room, you discover dirty tables and clutter. You immediately begin clearning the tables and clearing the clutter. This coping strategy is one of:

A. problem-focused coping
B. stress-reduction coping
C. emotional-focused coping
D. primary-appraisal coping
A. problem-focused coping
An acquired inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stiumul is:

A. identification
B. projection
C. rationalization
D. learned helplessness
D. learned helplessness
The best predictor of day-to-day health is:

A. major, negative life events
B. frequent, severe hassles
C. occasional minor hassles
D. major, positive life events
B. frequent, severe hassles
Burnout may occur in any job, but it is a special problem for:

A. architects
B. factory technicians
C. engineers
D. social workers
D. social workers
The general health of optimists when compared with pessimists is that:

A. optimists are in better health
B. neither group shows health differences
C. both groups show good health
D. pessimists are in better health
A. optimists are in better health
The defense mechanism that separates contradictory thoughts or feelings into "logic tight" mental compartments so that they do not come into conflict describes:

A. identification
B. projection
C. isolation
D. intellectualization
C. isolation
Justifying personal actions by giving logical but false reasons for those actions is teh defense mechanism of:

A. projection
B. intellectualization
C. regression
D. rationalization
D. rationalization
Learning to resist pressure to begin unhealthy habits is taught through:

A. both refusal and life skills training
B. life skills training
C. neither refusal nor life skills training
D. refusal skills training
D. refusal skills training
Damage to health is more likely to result from:

A. anxiety
B. depression
C. hostility
D. pessimism
B. depression
Severe psychosomatic disorders can be:

A. fatal
B. of little physical significance
C. inconvenient
D. positive in their impact
A. fatal
When a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations, he or she faces:

A. strain
B. pressure
C. stress
D. anxiety
B. pressure
Excessive anger over a minor irritation is a common form of:

A. internal aggression
B. external aggression
C. displaced aggression
D. personal aggression
C. displaced aggression
The incidence of infectious diseases causing death in the last 100 years has:

A. decreased
B. increased
C. remained the same
D. increased since AIDS
A. decreased
When the dog is kicked after you have had a hard day at the office, the experience is one of:

A. external aggression
B. personal aggression
C. displaced aggression
D. internal aggression
C. displaced aggression
Roughly ___ percent of all american adults are overweight:

A. 15
B. 30
C. 60
D. 45
60%
Arriving at the company break room, you discover dirty tables and clutter. You make a special effort to control your anger. This coping strategy is one of:

A. emotion-focused coping
B. primary-appraisal coping
C. problem-focused coping
D. stress-reduction coping
A. emotion-focused coping
Wanting to have my cake and eat it too describes:

A. double approach-avoidance conflict
B. avoidance-avoidance conflict
C. approach-approach conflict
D. approach-avoidance conflict
C. approach-approach conflict
During the school year, nearly ___ percent of all college students suffer some symptoms of depression.

A. 60
B. 80
C. 90
D. 70
B. 80%
The risk of stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, cancer, high blood pressure, and heart disease is greatly:

A. increased by 3 or more alcoholic drinks per day
B. decreased by 3 or morealcholic drinks per day
C. decreased by 1 to 2 alcoholic drinks per day
D. increased by 1 to 2 alcoholic drinks per day
A. increased by 3 or more alcoholic drinks per day
The effects of ______ frustration can accumulate until a small irritation sets off an unexpectedly violent response:

A. personal
B. repeated
C. internal
D. external
B. repeated
Behavior patterns that make people unhappy and impair their personal growth refers to:

A. psychopathology
B. psychiatry
C. psychoanalysis
D. psychotherapy
A. psychopathology
When normal or abnormal behavior is described based on the values of one's general scial setting, the situation is one of:

A. social stereotyping
B. cultural relativity
C. situational context
D. psychopathology
B. cultural relativity
Brain pathology related to diseases, brain injuries, drug use, and poisons would be called:

A. psychotic disorders
B. mood disorders
C. organic mental disorders
D. psychosomatic illness
C. organic mental disorders
When physical symptoms mimic disease or injury for which there is no identifiable physical cause, the diagnosis is:

A. mood disorder
B. anxiety disorder
C. dissociative disorder
D. somatoform disorder
D. somatoform disorder
Temporary amnesia or multiple personalities would be diagnosed as:

A. mood disorder
B. anxiety disorder
C. dissociative disorder
D. somatoform disorder
C. dissociative disorder
Personality disorders usually appear in:

A. childhood
B. adolescence
C. young adulthood
D. senior adult years
B. adolescence
Repeated dishonesty with no sign of remorse might indicate:

A. mood disorder
B. anxiety disorder
C. dissociative disorder
D. anti-social personality
D. anti-social personality
Distress seems greatly out of proportion to a person's circumstances. This most likely indicates a(n):

A. mood disorder
B. anxiety disorder
C. dissociative disorder
D. somatoform disorder
B. anxiety disorder
The specific phobia that fears storms, thunder and lightning is:

A. agoraphobia
B. acrophobia
C. astraphobia
D. arachnophobia
C. astraphobia
Irrational acts that a person feels driven to repeat are:

A. obsessions
B. compulsions
C. delusions
D. illusions
B. compulsions
Theories that emphasize subjective experience, human problems, and personal potentials would be called:

A. psychodynamic
B. behavioral
C. cognitive
D. humanistic
D. humanistic
A 43-year-old man in good physical health was sure he was pregnant. He suffered from:

A. illusion
B. hallucination
C. delusion
D. obsession
C. delusion
A quiet, shy, middle-aged woman describes the people wom she hears in her house when she is locked in alone. She suffers from:

A. illusion
B. hallucination
C. delusion
D. obsession
B. hallucination
"The hand is quicker than the eye" illustrates:

A. illusion
B. hallucintaion
C. delusion
D. obsession
A. illusion
The complaint, "Everyone's looking at me and planning together to do bad things to me" illustrates:

A. delusions of grandeur
B. delusions of jealousy
C. delusions of erotomania
D. delusions of persecution
D. delusions of persecution
The assertion, "I'm the real president. The man in the White House is an imposter", is known as:

A. delusions of grandeur
B. delusions of jealousy
C. delusions of erotomania
D. delusions of persecution
A. delusions of grandeur
Schizophrenia, marked by a preoccupation with delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations related to a theme of grandeur or persecution, is:

A. disorganized schizophrenia
B. catatonic schizophrenia
C. paranoid schizophrenia
D. undifferentiated schizophrenia
C. paranoid schizophrenia
When depression alternates with periods when the person's mood is cheerful, expansive, or irritable, the problem is:

A. bipolar I disorder
B. bipolar II disorder
C. dysthymic disorder
D. cyclothymic disorder
D. cyclothymic disorder
If one identicle twin is depressed the other has a(n)___ percent chance of suffering depression:

A. 20
B. 40
C. 60
D. 80
D. 80%
When phototherapy is used to SAD patients, the response rate is ____ percent:

A. 20
B. 40
C. 60
D. 80
D. 80%
Any therapy designed to bring about direct changes in troublesome thoughts, feelings, or behavior without seeking insight into their origins or meaning is:

A. group therapy
B. action therapy
C. non-directive therapy
D. time-limited therapy
B. action therapy
Any therapy begun with the expectation that it will last only a limited number of sessions is:

A. group therapy
B. action therapy
C. non-directive therapy
D. time-limited therapy
D. time-limited therapy
A therapy in which several clients participate at the same time is:

A. group therapy
B. action therapy
C. non-directive therapy
D. time-limited therapy
A. group therapy
Any surgical procedure in which a hole is bored in the skull is:

A. deep lesioning
B. psychotherapy
C. trepanning
D. hypnotherapy
C. trepanning
In Freudian thought the hidden symbolic meaning of dreams is the:

A. latent (hidden) content
B. manifest (obvious) content
C. social content
D. dream symbol
A. latent(hidden) content
Dream images that have personal or emotional meanings are:

A. the latent (hidden) content
B. the manifest (obvious) content
C. the social content
D. the dream symbols
D. the dream symbols
When a therapist attempts to see the world through the clients eyes she attempts to show:

A. unconditional positive regard
B. empathy
C. authenticity
D. reflection
B. empathy
A therapy that focuses on the problems of existence, such as meaning, choice, and responsibility, is called:

A. existential therapy
B. Freudian therapy
C. Gestalt therapy
D. cognitive therapy
A. existential therapy
In Gestalt therapy emotional health comes from what you:

A. should want to do
B. ought to do
C. should do
D. want to do
D. want to do
Telephone counselors who use 900-number services have:

A. a remarkably positive effect
B. a remarkably negative effect
C. sometimes positive and sometimes negative effects
D. no evident effectiveness
D. no evident effectiveness
Compared with traditional office visits, cybertherapy is:

A. less expensive
B. more expensive
C. more expensive on weekends
D. neither more nor less expensive
A. less expensive
Behavior therapists believe that deep insight into one's problems is:

A. sometimes necessary for improvement
B. always necessary for improvement
C. often necessary for improvement
D. never necessary for improvement
D. never necessary for improvement
Not many physicians who treat lung cancer patients are smokers. This illustrates:

A. common sense
B. aversion therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. classical conditioning
B. aversion therapy
Guided reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion is:

A. common sense
B. aversion therapy
C. systematic desensitization
C. systematic desensitization
Desensitization is primarily used to help people unlearn:

A. anxiety disorders
B. mood disorders
C. SAD
D. phobias
D. phobias
Rewarding actions that are closer and closer approximations to a desired response results in:

A. negative reinforcement
B. positive reinforcement
C. shaping
D. extinction
C. shaping
For maximum impact, therapists select target behaviors and use token rewards to reinforce these behaviors:

A. all the time
B. some of the time
C. most of the time
D. none of the time
A. all the time
Depressed persons tend to magnify the importance of undesirable events by engaging in:

A. selective perception
B. overgeneralization
C. all-or-non thinking
D. non-reinforcement
C. all-or-nothing thinking
Changing thought patterns that underlie emotional or behavioral problems is:

A. existential therapy
B. Freudian therapy
C. Gestalt therapy
D. cognitive therapy
D. cognitive therapy
"I must be loved and approved by almost every significant person in my life or I'm worthless" is an example of:

A. an activating experience
B. an emotional consequence
C. unrealistic belief
D. a logical conclusion
C. unrealistic belief
Based on a national study, about ___ percent of women considered themselves to be bisexual:

A. 3
B. 4
C. 5
D. 2
A. 3%
Fear, anxiety, or disgust about engaging in sex is:

A. a desire disorder
B. a sexual aversion
C. an arousal disorder
D. an orgasm disorder
B. a sexual aversion
Premature ejaculation is a problem for about ___ percent of young adult men:

A. 20
B. 40
C. 30
D. 50
D. 50%
The sex drive in women is related to:

A. testosterone levels
B. estrogen levels
C. thyroxin levels
D. insulin levels
B. estrogen levels
Rapists are friends or acquaintances in ___ percent of cases:

A. 30-50
B. 65-80
C. 10-15
D. 20-25
B. 65-80
When different rules are used to judge the appropriateness of male and female behavior, it is called:

A. gender expectation
B. social stereotyping
C. gender role
D. double standard
D. double standard
An infection passed on by intimate physical contact is a(n):

A. sexually transmitted diseases
B. hormonally generated infection
C. sexually active condition
D. gender induced trauma
A. sexually transmitted disease
"Women are the weaker sex" is an illustration of:

A. gender stereotypes
B. gender perceptions
C. gender distinctions
D. gender expectations
A. gender stereotypes
Boys start to play mostly with boys at about age:

A. 5
B. 4
C. 3
D. 2
C. 3
Genital pain related to sexual intercourse is known as:

A. female orgasmic disorder
B. male orgasmic disorder
C. dyspareunia
D. male erectile dysfunction
C. Dyspareunia
Roughly one-third of all persons consider themselves androgynous and about __ percent consider themselves traditionally feminine or masculine:

A. 50
B. 60
C. 30
D. 40
A. 50%
About __ percent of males are capable of multiple orgasms

A. 5
B. 30
C. 25
D. 75
A. 5%
The favored pattern of behavior expected of each sex is:

A. gonadal sex
B. gender role
C. genetic sex
D. biological role
B. gender role
The sexual phase during which physical arousal intensifies is:

A. orgasm
B. excitement
C. resolution
D. plateau
D. plateau
Daughters are encouraged to:

A. be prepared for work
B. be emotion-oriented
C. avoid nurturing
D. be controlled emotionally
B. be emotion-oriented
Based on a national study, about ___ percent of men considered themselves bisexual:

A. 3
B. 4
C. 2
D. 5
D. 5%
When pain is desired as part of the sex act, the condition is one of:

A. sexual masochism
B. pedophilia
C. exhibitionism
D. sexual sadism
A. sexual masochism
Male erectile disorder is a problem when failure occurs on __ percent of a man's lovemaking attempts:

A. 15
B. 25
C. 10
D. 2
B. 25
Girls tend to play:

A. away from adults
B. outdoors
C. with adolescents
D. indoors
D. indoors
A climax and release of sexual excitement is the sexual phase of:

A. excitement
B. plateau
C. resolution
D. orgasm
D. orgasm
A detailed description of skills, knowledge and activities required by a particular job is:

A. job description
B. social role
C. job analysis
D. personal interview
C. job analysis
Job applicants are questioned about their ualifications in a:

A. job description
B. social role
C. job analysis
D. personal interview
D. personal interview
When difficult but realistic work situations are presented ____ is being used:

A. personal interview
B. situation judgment test
C. aptitude test
D. job skills test
B. a situational judgement test
Theory X management is interested in:

A. good morale
B. labor relations
C. work quotas
D. employee satisfaction
C. work quotas
Theory Y management is interested in:

A. work quotas
B. time schedules
C. personalized work stations
D. bonuses
C. personalized work situations
People who are fully aware of risks andopportunities but uncomfortable making decisions could be described as:

A. vigilant
B. defensive-avoidant
C. complacent
D. hypervigilant
B. defensive-avoidant
People who panic when forced to make career decisions could be described as:

A. vigilant
B. defensive-avoidant
C. complacent
D. hypervigilant
D. hypervigilant
The social distance that begins at the skin and extends about 18 inches is known as:

A. intimate distance
B. personal distance
C. social distance
D. public distance
A. intimate distance
Three friends walk across campus abreast of one another rather than in single file. This illustrates:

A. intimate distance
B. personal distance
C. social distance
D. public distance
B. personal distance
The boss sits behind his desk as he gives instructions for the day. This illustrates:

A. intimate distance
B. personal distance
C. social distance
D. public distance
C. social distance
In a large classroom with an adequate public address system, most students sit inthe back half of the room. This illustrates:

A. intimate distance
B. personal distance
C. social distance
D. public distance
D. public distance
Gated communities are an example of:

A. social distance
B. territorial markers
C. safe environments
D. anxiety reduction techniques
B. territorial markers
Imagining a skilled performance is:

A. mental skill
B. mental awareness
C. mental practice
D. mental set
C. mental practice
When athletes evaluate their performance and make adjustments, they have engaged in:

A. cognitive-behavioral strategies
B. imagery and relaxation techniques
C. self-regulation strategies
D. a fixed routine
C. self-regulation strategies
Physical, mental, and emotional states are harmonious in:

A. mental practice
B. motor programs
C. peak performance
D. motor skills
C. peak performance
A young dancer misses one small step but quickly compensates to complete her routine as a result of:

A. mental practice
B. motor programs
C. peak performance
D. motor skills
B. motor programs
An experienced dancer movs smoothly and efficiently through a difficult performance based on:

A. mental practice
B. motor programs
C. peakperformance
D. motor skills
D. motor skills
Studies have shown that jurors ____ put aside their biases, attitudes, and beliefs:

A. always
B. never
C. rarely
D. routinely
C. rarely
When complex scientific evidence is presented, jurors tend to be:

A. swayed by the expert witness
B. swayed by the science
C. swayed by the overall evidence
D. unaffected by the appearance of the witness
A. swayed by the expert witness
When the crime is more severe and the evidence more clear-cut, the jury tends to be:

A. less fair
B. more fair
C. less fair toward racial minorities
D. less fair toward women
B. more fair
"Since you wont wash the car, couldn't you at least fill it with fuel?" is an example of:

A. door-in-the-face effect
B. forced compliance
C. low-ball technique
D. foot-in-the-door effect
A. door-in-the-face effect
Moderate self-disclosure generally results in:

A. low self-disclosure
B. inactive reciprocity
C. high self-disclosure
D. more personal replies
D. more personal replies
The study of the origins of human behavior patterns is known as:

A. developmental psychology
B. cognitive psychology
C. evolutionary psychology
D. social psychology
C. evolutionary psychology
A mixture of belief and emotion that summarizes your evaluation of objects is:

A. an action
B. a delusion
C. an attitude
D. a belief
C. an attitude
When beautiful people are generally assumed to be likeable, intelligent and sociall skilled, this is due to:

A. the halo effect
B. social stereotypes
C. gender expectations
D. the double standard
A. the halo effect
A widely accepted but often unspoken standard of behavior is:

A. an attribution
B. a social expectation
C. a status symbol
D. a norm
D. a norm
In-groups have particularly strong:

A. status
B. cohesiveness
C. structure
D. peer influences
B. cohesiveness
In brainwashing, the stage at which former beliefs are abandoned is the stage of:

A. refreeze
B. change
C. unfreeze
D. acceptance
B. change
One effective antidote to youth violence is:

A. nightly curfews
B. strict rules
C. consistent punishment
D. a loving family
D. a loving family
An element essential to developing close relationships is:

A. self-disclosure
B. romantic love
C. likeability
D. homogamy
A. self disclosure
The first step in brainwashing is to:

A. refreeze beliefs and attitudes
B. unfreeze beliefs and attitudes
C. change beliefs and attitudes
D. accept new beliefs and attitudes
B. unfreeze beliefs and attitudes
An urge by decision-makers to maintain each other's approval leads to:

A. double standards
B. group-think
C. social stereotypes
D. social acceptance
B. group-think
You collapse on a crowded sidewalk, and one peerson attempts to break your fall to prevent injury. This bystander has:

A. avoided responsibility
B. ignored the victim
C. refused to act
D. defined an emergency
D. defined an emergency
In Milgram's obedience studies, fact-to-face contact reduced compliance to __ percent.

A. 10
B. 30
C. 15
D. 5
B. 30
You collapse on a crowded sidewalk. Everyone walks past you and refuses to stare in public. Bystanders have not:

A. defined an emergency
B. taken responsibility
C. noticed the victim
D. selected a course of action
C. noticed the victim
"while you are out puttingfuel in the car why not go to the Post Office, pick up the dry cleaning, and stop by the grocery store?" is an example of:

A. forced compliance
B. door-in-the-face effect
C. low-ball technique
D. foot-in-the-door effect
D. foot-in-the-door effect
When we attribute the actions of others to internal motives, while labeling our motives as external, we have engaged in:

A. a double standard
B. actor-observer bias
C. fundamental reciprocity
D. social stereotyping
B. actor-observer bias
The theory that we affiliate to evaluate our actions, feelings, and skills is known as:

A. social attribution theory
B. social comparison theory
C. social psychology
D. self-disclosure theory
B. social comparison theory
Scapegoating is a type of:

A. personal aggression
B. safe aggression
C. displaced aggression
D. social aggression
C. displaced aggression
"Could you bring me a soft drink? Now that you are up, why not pop some popcorn?" is an example of:

A. forced compliance
B. low-ball technique
C. door-in-the-face effect
D. foot-in-the-door effect
B. low-ball technique